~ COMBINED OPERATIONS ~

WW2 land, sea and air forces of the Allied Nations planning, training and operating together as a unified force on amphibious raids and landings against the enemy.

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 ~ D DAY LANDING INTERACTIVE ~

The image below is from a painting called "Combined Operations - a Normandy Beachhead" by David A Thorp. It's set in Normandy, early D-Day morning, June 6 1944. The coordinated sea, land and air operation to establish a beachhead, from which to liberate Europe, was gaining momentum but the beaches and their approaches, remained extremely hazardous. Click on the map opposite to see the location of the beach and on the numbers in the image below for an explanation of the key events and actions, or just scroll down the page and let the story unfold.


Background

The painting, from which the image above was taken, was gifted to the Combined Operations Memorial Fund by military artist, David A Thorp, with consent to produce a range of prints. The action portrayed in the painting did not happen as a single event but did happen over a few hours on D Day morning.

This was the largest Combined Operation in history and is unlikely to be surpassed, or repeated, because of changes in the conduct of war since WW2. The objective was to land an overwhelming force of assault troops, together with their supplies and equipment, in pre-planned designated places at the right time and in sufficient numbers. All other activity on land, sea and in the air, was in support of these objectives.

Because of the landing craft chosen to appear in this painting, the honour of representing the hundreds of thousands of Allied troops which landed on the Normandy beaches, fell to the men of the 2nd East Yorkshire Regiment of the 8th Infantry Brigade of the 3rd British Division and the Royal Marines.

The Action

The assault infantry are moving off the landing beach supported by a Bren Gun carrier, (25) while a colour sergeant is holding aloft the battle flag  of the regiment. (26) To carry the flag into action was neither expected nor required by regulations because of targeting by snipers. Whatever motivated the colour sergeant that day, his action was unselfish and courageous and no doubt promoted a spirit of camaraderie amongst the troops of the EYR.

At the water’s edge, (18) further infantry are dashing ashore from LCAs (Landing Craft Assault), small flat bottomed craft with a capacity to carry about 36 troops. Earlier, the LCAs had been lowered into the waterfrom the troopship SS Empire Battleaxe and had made their way to their designated landing area. Nearby, a Sherman tank (19) momentarily takes up a position in support of the landing troops before leaving the beach area. Meanwhile, more LCAs (10) from the ship are heading for the beach.

The  Empire Battleaxe carried in her davits the 18 craft of 537 LCA Flotilla, each with a crew of 4 and space for 36 assault troops - a total of around 650 men on each full deployment of the craft. The Empire Battleaxe had a total capacity of 1195 fully equipped men. She and many others ships destined for Sword beach that morning, sailed from Spithead the previous evening arriving at their place for disembarking her first batch of LCAs at 5.30 hrs, two hours before H Hour. H Hour, the time of the initial assault landings, varied from beach to beach according to the passage of the tide along the Normandy coast. At the appointed time, the Empire Battleaxe lowered her LCAs into the water, much as a modern ship would lower her lifeboats during an emergency at sea.

The build-up of troops and equipment was relentless and awe inspiring as LCAs 770, 429 and 778 (14) poured more troops onto the landing beach. Progress was made but at considerable cost in lives. Further east along the water's edge lie the bodies of men (21) caught in a hail of gunfire as they landed. The bodies of others, who drowned or were fatally wounded before they reached the landing beach, are washing back and forth with the tide. No beach was free of such gory images and in places the sea turned red. The wounded on the beach are receiving attention from regimental medics (20) as a chaplain kneels in prayer over a man close to death. Stretcher bearers (24) are transporting casualties to the relative safety of cover provided by an embankment and parked vehicles.

Overhead, Lancaster bombers (01) are making their way inland from the beaches to bomb heavy gun emplacements, enemy strong-points, fuel and ammunition dumps, troop concentrations, radar and communications facilities and HQ buildings; mostly targets in support of the advancing land forces. In the run up to D-Day their primary purpose had been to destroy rail and road routes into Normandy to delay the arrival of enemy reinforcements, although their area of operation was more extensive than necessary to confuse the enemy. In this way the Allied plans for the invasion of Normandy were not compromised. After D-Day, the heavy bombers increasingly returned to operations against strategic targets with the exception of the largest fixed defensive installations that impeded the Allied advance in the battle grounds.

Air cover was provided by the RAF and USAF. The patrolling Spitfire (02) is one of hundreds of Allied fighter aircraft of many types that took to the air that day. Once the beachhead had been secured and the Allied Armies had moved inland, fighters operated in support of the troops using the 'cab rank' arrangement described below. As it happened, the Luftwaffe were conspicuously absent for much of D-Day and when they finally made an appearance, they were very few in number.

The versatile Mosquito light/medium bomber (03) was used in many different roles. Here, it is responding to a request from the advancing troops for support to clear an enemy strong point, successfully avoiding the flashes of anti-aircraft flak in the process. Later, when Army and RAF "Forward Air Controllers" were operating on, or near, the front line with RAF radio equipment, requests for air support were channelled through them. 'Mossies' were called upon so regularly that they circled in the forward areas like taxi cabs cruising for a fare to allow them to respond very quickly to any request for assistance.

Barrage Balloons (04) were attached to many craft to deter low level strafing and bombing attacks by enemy planes. Although not clearly visible in the painting, the tethering cables were lethal obstacles to low flying aircraft. However, not everyone aboard the landing craft felt they were a power for good. Some believed the balloons could be used by enemy observers to pin-point the location of their craft, thereby increasing the accuracy of the enemy's fire.

On the horizon far out to sea, (05) battleships, cruisers and destroyers had completed their shelling of the beach area but they remained on station to shell predetermined targets inland of the beaches or specific targets identified by observers and the advancing troops. LCT(R)s (Landing Craft Tank Rocket) had fired salvos of rocket propelled bombs onto the landing beaches in advance of the assault troops to soften up the enemy defences and salvos of spigot bombs had been fired from LCA(HR)s (Landing Craft Assault Hedgerow). Hedgerow was the code for spigot bombs launched in salvos, while fairly close to the shoreline onto the landing beaches. The pressure wave they created detonated mines blocking exit routes from the beaches. 

HQ ships of many types also occupied these waters at varying distances, as they received information on the progress of the invasion and intelligence on enemy activity. Much of the information came from the three Fighter Direction Tenders, converted LSTs (Landing Ship Tanks). These craft were close to 400 ft long and normally carried heavy tanks and large lorries. However, instead the above deck area of the FDTs bristled with radio aerials and rotating radar gantries. The main HQ ship off Sword, HMS Largs, used the information from the FDTs to call on the support of the RAF and the Navy's big guns while the smaller HQ craft controlled the flow of landing craft to and from the beaches according to need and priorities .

The 2nd East Yorkshires were supported by ‘swimming tanks’, more properly called DD or Duplex Drive tanks (13). They were Sherman tanks of ‘B’ Squadron of the 13th/18th Hussars of the 27th Armoured Brigade carried by Mk3 LCTs of the 14th LCT Flotilla of E Squadron Landing Craft under the command of Acting Commander Kenneth Sellar RN. Prior to launching, their floatation skirts were raised and secured in place to provide sufficient buoyancy for the tanks to ‘swim’ ashore under their own power transmitted through two propellers. They were launched about 5000 metres from shore and on reaching the beach the propeller mechanism was detached and the tank proceeded along the beach in the normal way.

LCT(A) 2433 (12) was part of the 100th LCT(A)(HE) Flotilla (Landing Craft Tank High Explosive). These were tank carriers adapted to allow the leading tanks to fire onto the beaches on the approach. She was hit by an errant rocket fired from a LCT(R) further out to sea. 2433's bow door sustained damage but she still managed to successfully unload her cargo and withdraw from the beach. One DD tank was sunk after being rammed by an LCT, while those on LCT 467 were landed directly onto the beach after the leading tank damaged its flotation skirt and could not be launched.

The  Mk 5 LCT(A) (Landing Craft Tank Assault) 2052 (16) and 2191 (17) were built in the USA and crewed by the Royal Navy. The could carry a couple of heavy tanks and field guns that were mounted on the bow to fire on the enemy as they approached the beach. They were also part of the 100th LCT(A)(HE) Flotilla of Assault Group S3 Support Squadron out of Portsmouth. There were originally 8 craft in the Flotilla but only 6  reached their destination, including 2052 and 2191, the other two having broken down. They were transporting the 5th Independent Battery of the Royal Marine Armoured Support Group with their Centaur and Sherman tanks. Both LCTs received direct hits from an enemy mobile 88mm gun and became total losses. Fortunately, in both cases their tanks had already been off-loaded.

LCT(A) 2191 lost half her crew with others severely wounded. LCT(A) 2052 did not fair much better. Their coxswain was killed at his station in the wheelhouse and other crew members were severely wounded. The dead from both craft are buried in Hermanville cemetery. Full story here.

Mk4 LCT 947 (Mk 4 Landing Craft Tank) (15) was the mainstay of the Royal Navy in ferrying troops, tanks, lorries and supplies from the UK to the landing beaches. Over 800 were built. 947 led the 45th LCT(AVRE) (Landing Craft Tank Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers). They were LCTs adapted to carry Hobart's "Funnies", tanks adapted for beach clearance work. Only one tank managed to disembark LCT 947 that morning.

The second tank in line carried Commander Royal Engineers, Lt Col ADB Cocks. As the tank moved forward the LCT took three direct hits in her bows. The tank lurched sideways and stopped in its tracks blocking the exit. Despite frantic efforts by engineers and the forecastle party, it proved impossible to move the tank out of the way so the remaining tanks on board could not disembark. A greater explosion soon followed, when pipes packed with dynamite on board a neighbouring AVRE 'Carpet Layer'(k), exploded. The blast killed Lt Col Cocks and the tank commander. Despite the damage, LCT 947 turned about and returned to England with most of her original cargo and the bodies of the men who had been killed aboard that morning.

LCI(S) 519 (08)  Landing Craft Infantry (Small) could carry up to 96 fully equipped troops. 519 was ‘Leader’ of the 200th LCI(S) Flotilla out of Warsash on the River Hamble. She carried the 200th Flotilla Officer, Lt Commander Rupert Curtis and Commandos of the 1st Special Service Brigade. Amongst them were the Commanding Officer of No 4 Commando, Brigadier Lord Simon Lovat and his piper Bill Millin.(22) Both of them waded ashore, Millin wearing his kilt and playing the bagpipes and Lord Lovat wearing a ‘Tam o' Shanter’, a Scottish bonnet, often tartan with a pom pom at its centre, with his white Commando sweater under his battledress tunic, although, on the day, his tunic would, undoubtedly, have been fastened!

Another craft of the 200th LCI(S) Flotilla was the LCI(S) 524. (06) She had beached under fire and took casualties after landing her Commandos. Having successfully withdrawn from the beach, she received a direct hit in her high octane tanks. The craft disintegrated and the fuel ignited setting the sea ablaze. Survivors struggling in the sea were picked up by a US Navy coastguard cutter but despite this 8 members of her crew were lost.

Also in view are LCI(S) 506 (09)and nearby LCI(S) 531 lying on her side. Although originally part of the 201st Flotilla, these craft were assigned to the 200th LCI(S) Flotilla on D-Day. 506 was badly damaged but managed to take off the crew of LCI(S) 531 which was sinking.

At the rear of LCT(A) 2433 is the American built LCI(L) 269 (11) (Landing Craft Infantry Large). It could carry 190 troops below deck with room for 50 more above deck when the weather permitted. She was fitted with communications and radar equipment and re-designated LCH 269 (Landing Craft Headquarters).  Her role during the assault was to direct the flow of landing craft to and from Queen Red beach.

Because of their considerable experience of recovering downed pilots and air crew, particularly from the waters around the south coast of England, the RAF Search and Rescue Launch 2687 (07) patrols off the beach in search of men in the water.

The beaches were heavily defended by gun emplacements, pill boxes and beach obstacles, the latter designed to obstruct and impede the progress of landing craft as they approached their predetermined landing areas or, in the case of those obstacles primed with powerful mines, to destroy or disable the craft. Other obstacles placed above the waterline had a similar purpose but were aimed at tanks and other mechanised vehicles and the assault troops. An armoured bulldozer (23) is clearing an area of the beach of steel tetrahedron shaped girders.

The Royal Marine sniper (27) may well have had a German officer in his sights, whose elimination would add to the confusion and bewilderment spreading amongst the German troops defending the landing area. The Royal Marines were reputed to be amongst the best of snipers since they had a tradition of sniping from the cross trees of sailing ships centuries before. They had continued with sniper training when most warring nations abandoned it during periods of peace.

Makeshift signs (28) to warn of mine fields and other hard to see dangers were hastily erected. The skull and crossbones captured the attention of passing troops and vehicle drivers, while the direction and distance of the danger, scrawled underneath, provided the vital information they needed, in this case about mines.

[Print Friendly Copy of Text. Print Friendly Copy of Numbered Painting].

Further Reading

There are around 300 books listed on our 'Combined Operations Books' page. They, or any other books you know about, can be purchased on-line from the Advanced Book Exchange (ABE). Their search banner link, on our 'Books' page, checks the shelves of thousands of book shops world-wide. Just type in, or copy and paste the title of your choice, or use the 'keyword' box for book suggestions. There's no obligation to buy, no registration and no passwords.

 The Story of the Painting

The painting and prints were generously donated to the Combined Operations Memorial Fund by military artist, David A Thorp. Advising on the content was Tony Chapman, archivist and historian of the LST and Landing Craft Association.

The painting measures 750 mm by 550 mm and is set on the eastern flank of Sword beach early on D-Day morning between 7.30 am and 8.30 am, about an hour or so after the first assault troops ducked and dived as they tenaciously fought their way up the beach between Riva Bella (Ouistreham) and Lion sur Mer. The painting does not portray a particular event but all the actions depicted did take place in the area over the space of a few hours. With the skill of the artist, they were brought together in a seamless montage.

It is impossible in a single painting to show the vast extent of Operation Neptune since its 5 landing beaches stretched around 50 miles (80k) to the west of Lion sur Mer. While British and Canadian forces were attacking Gold, Juno and Sword beaches, American forces faced major challenges of their own on Omaha and Utah beaches. Although the painting concentrates on a small area of one beach, the it honours the memory of all land, sea and air forces from the UK, USA, Canada and all who served the Allied cause.

The German defences were still holding out and the beach and its approaches were extremely hazardous as the lines of machine gun bullets striking the water, the huge explosion out to sea, the stretcher bearers going about their life-saving work and the blood stained water lapping the shore, all testify. It was not a place to tarry unless your name was Bill Millin who, against HQ orders, piped Lord Lovat and his No 4 Commando off their landing craft and then proceeded to march up and down the beach to the tune of "The Road to the Isles." The Germans could easily have shot Millin dead but they had no wish to kill someone who had clearly lost his mind!

On D-Day alone, around 6000 vessels crossed the Channel and over 150,000 men with their supplies and equipment were transported to Normandy. Around 800 RAF and USAF bombers dropped their payloads on selected targets inland of the beach areas and 13,000 paratroops were dropped behind enemy lines. All the while, Allied fighters patrolled the skies in support of the invading force and harassed the enemy. 

Six days after the events described in the painting, Churchill and his military advisers visited the Sword, Juno and Gold beaches. On returning to Downing Street, Churchill sent a signal to Mountbatten, by then in Burma. It readily acknowledged the vital role he and Combined Operations had played in the operation and expressed the Nation's gratitude. David Thorp's painting captures the essence of what Churchill described as "this remarkable technique".

Today we visited the British and American Armies on the soil of France. We sailed through vast fleets of ships with landing-craft of many types pouring more men, vehicles and stores ashore. We saw clearly the manoeuvre in progress of rapid development. We have shared our secrets in common and helped each other all we could. We wish to tell you at this moment in your arduous campaign that we realise how much of this remarkable technique and therefore the success of the venture has its origin in developments effected by you and your staff of Combined Operations.

(Signed) Arnold, Brooke, Churchill, King, Marshall, Smut.

 

News & Information

 

Memorial Maintenance

We have a small band of volunteers who take turns to visit the memorial each month, particularly during the growing season, to undertake routine maintenance such as weeding keeping the stones and slabs clear of bird dropping, lichen etc. and reporting on any issues. If you live near the National Memorial Arboretum and would like to find out more, please contact us.

Remember a Veteran

You can pay a personal tribute to veterans who served in, or alongside, the Combined Operations Command in WW2 by adding their details and optional photo to our Roll of Honour and They Also Served pages on this website.

Read the Combined Operations prayer.

Events and Places to Visit

To organisers: Reach the people who will be interested to know about your Combined Operations or war related event by adding it to our  webpage free of charge.

To everyone else: Visit our webpage for information on events and places to visit. If you know of an event or place of interest, that is not listed, please let us know.

To notify an event or place of interest, click here.

To visit the webpage click here.

Facebook

Why not join the thousands who visit our Facebook page about the Combined Operations Command in appreciation of our WW2 veterans.

See the 'slide shows' of the dedication ceremony and the construction of the memorial plus the 'On this day in 194?' feature where major Combined Ops events are highlighted on their anniversary dates with links to additional information.

You are welcome to add information, photos and comment or reply to messages posted by others.

Find Books of Interest 

Search for Books direct from our Books page. Don't have the name of a book in mind? Just type in a keyword to get a list of possibilities... and if you want to purchase you can do so on line through the Advanced Book Exchange (ABE). 5% commission goes into the memorial fund.

WW2 Combined Operations Handbook

This handbook was prepared for Combined Operations in the Far East. It illustrates the depth and complexity of the planning process necessary to ensure that the 3 services worked together as a unified force.

Restoration of Geoffrey Appleyard's  Memorial 

Click on the image if you'd like to contribute to the improvement of the memorial to Geoffrey Appleyard, DSO, MC and Bar, through the purchase of a limited edition print of a book about him. Geoffrey achieved so much in service with No 7 Commando, No 62 Commando, the Small Scale Raiding Force and the Second SAS Regiment. He was posted Missing in Action in July 1943, aged 26.

www.bramleywarmemorial.com/major-geoffrey-appleyard-book-now-available-for-purchase/

The Gazelle Helicopter Squadron Display Team

The Gazelle Squadron is a unique team of ex-British Military Gazelle helicopters in their original military colours and with their original military registrations. The core team includes four Gazelles, one from each service; The Royal Navy, The Royal Marines, The Army Air Corps and The Royal Air Force. A fifth Gazelle in Royal Marines colours will provide intimate support for the team. Their crest includes the Combined Operations badge. The last, and possibly, only time the badge was seen on an aircraft was in the early mid 40s. A photo of the Hurricane concerned is included in the 516 Squadron webpage.

Legasee Film Archive

As part of an exciting social history project, the film company Legasee is looking for veterans from any conflict who would like to have their stories filmed for posterity. Films are now available on line. www.legasee.org.uk

New to Combined Ops?

Visit Combined Operations Explained for an easy introduction to the subject.

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