~ WALCHEREN ~
Wartime Memories of
the German Occupation of Walcheren
Jan Wigard was just 6 years old when the Germans arrived in his
home town of Middelberg on the Island of Walcheren in May, 1940. It would be
over 4 years before the island was liberated.
I was born on the Dutch island of Walcheren in the
River Scheldt estuary on the 5th of April, 1934 in Middelburg, the capital of the province of Zeeland. Life quietly ebbed and flowed to the rhythm of a small town in pre-war Europe.
certainly no indication of the decisive role history had in store for our island community.
[Map courtesy of Google Map
My father worked as a shipyard mechanic in Flushing about 8 kilometres away
from our home. He cycled to work when the
weather was good otherwise he took a tram. Summer weekends were often spent at the seaside and, as was usual in those days, we cycled the12 kilometres or so to the beaches. Our bicycles were left unlocked and unattended as we played happily down by the water.
Perhaps my most vivid memories in the pre war
years was a huge pageant to commemorate the birth of our Princess Irene
in August 1939 and the
annual August fair in the marketplace, where there was plenty of interest to children. As the 1930s drew to a close, these
relatively innocent and carefree times were to suddenly change, and not for the
Before the German
Walcheren is a roughly saucer shaped island about 15km north to south and 18km east to west, protected by sand
dunes and in lower lying areas by man-made sea-walls. The most westerly point of the island, and indeed of the Netherlands, is Westkapelle and the most
easterly is the Sloedam causeway to the mainland. Close by was Arnemuiden and to the south Vlissingen,
where a Dutch Navy base stood, now a Dutch Navy reserve
station, a shipyard and, until some years ago, a ferry to the English ports of Harwich (pre-war) and Sheerness (post war). North
was Veere, an old merchant and fishing town. Middelburg,
the capital of the province Zeeland was, as the
name suggests, close to the centre of the island.
The island economy was mainly farming in
the rural areas and in Middleburg there were national and local government jobs and a variety of
shop and factory work. Vitrite, part of the Philips group, employed around 1,000
people making caps for electric light bulbs, which were
exported world-wide. At Flushing, the "De Schelde"
shipyard employed about
3,000 people, building Dutch Navy, merchant navy and passenger ships, together with aircraft wings and fuselages. On the outskirts of the Flushing the Dutch KLM airline and the Dutch Royal Air force
operated out of an airfield, which they used to remove their planes to England
before the Germans arrived. When the Luftwaffe took over the facilities they
became a legitimate target for RAF bombers. There was a concentration of 'dikers' in
the Westkapelle area to build and maintain the huge sea-walls. These sea
defences were to play a vital role in the assault on the island by Allied forces
in November, 1944.
was well known as "the garden of Zeeland" being frequently visited by English tourists via
the mail boat between Vlissingen and Harwich. Most visitors stayed in Vlissingen hotel "Brittania" on the seafront. In November, 1940, it became
the German HQ and four years later, it was captured by the Royal Scots after very heavy fighting.
As a 6 year old child, I had no understanding of what war meant, although I heard my family talking about
the warmongers in Germany. I recall a birthday-party before the occupation of our island, most likely my grandfather’s party on the 7th of May,
1940, when I heard the adults talk about the 'barbarians coming'. The apprehension and tension in that conversation made the word Barbarians
extra threatening to me. I sensed that on the arrival of the Germans, my happy,
carefree childhood was going to come to an abrupt end.
the imagination of a young boy was easily distracted. The Dutch army was
mobilized in 1939, which included the garrison in Middelburg. Most soldiers there,
outside of basic military training, were administrators and bureaucrats trained in paymaster duties.
It was a
time of adventure for me, as extra soldiers were billited at the local sports
ground only 50 metres
from our house. A protective ditch, about 4 metres wide with prickly hawthorns on both sides, discouraged
intruders. Across the ditch the soldiers built 3 pinewood pile-bridges. For a
little boy this was a magical place to live and play. I remember the evocative
smells of pine-wood, hawthorn, military uniforms and equipment, and many decades after the events,
these smells still trigger vivid childhood memories.
Invasion of Holland
Apart from an understandable
degree of fear and apprehension, few people understood how invading German forces would affect their lives.
In early May 1940, my
mother was spring-cleaning our house as most people did in those days. On Friday, May 10th, she was putting the
finishing touches to her work as my father
set off, as usual, on his bike to work at the shipyard in Flushing. It was the morning of that day
the German troops crossed the Dutch border! Mother was still working when a neighbour came round and said 'Mrs. Wigard, stop working the war has started!' Mother
replied 'That might be so but first I have to finish my job!' I cannot remember
if my father went to his work in the coming days as we waited for the inevitable
arrival of the German forces on our island.
One curious Flushing
resident accompanied his brother to the airfield near the town to watch dog-fights
between Dutch and German fighters! It was a foolhardy venture, as they were both
in their 30s and should have known the risks! On another day, anti aircraft
shells exploded over the town and he recalled taking shelter
under a sunshade-awning outside a shop as shell splinters fell to the
ground! These were early days in the conflict but even so this reckless
behaviour was contrary to guidance from the authorities. This 'laissez faire'
attitude had, fortunately, disappeared before the end of the occupation in November, 1944, by which time everyone was
an expert in living under bombardment.
On the 15th of May,
1940, a damaged German bomber dropped its load of 13 bombs before it
attempted a crash landing. Six civilian died from the bombing as did the crew
of the plane as it crashed just out of Middelburg. Among the dead were
husband and wife, aged 77
and 78 years, who died at 9.15 am that morning, as did their son
aged 51 in a local hospital from
natural causes. Confirmation of this bizarre coincidence can be seen from
their death certificates in the town archives.
safety during bombardments for people caught out in the open, sandbag shelters
were strategically placed to provide some protection from shell splinters. Of
course, when the focus of the war moved away, these shelters served as playgrounds
for us children. Inevitably one day the accident waiting to happen …. happened!
Without warning, a wall of sandbags tumbled down, breaking the leg of a friend.
For me he was the first casualty of war but there was much worse to come.
I was too young to remember clearly what life was like in the period before the war. However, I
do remember several frightened and stressed soldiers, low ranks as well as
officers, forced westward as the well equipped and trained German forces advanced from the east. They told horrendous stories of unequal battles
- a veritable David and Goliath story with no happy outcome in the short term. The Netherlands had not been involved in a war for 110 years and
successive Governments had not given defence a high priority. Guns dating back to 1870 were called into service, which is one extreme example of
the lack of investment in the country's defences.
An atmosphere of rumour and suspicion prevailed at this time. We heard stories of treachery, the existence of a
"5th column" as well as German soldiers in Dutch uniforms. Our soldiers did not trust anyone and the inability of French troops to distinguish between German and Dutch military uniforms
simply added to the confusion. Members of the Dutch National Movement (NSB) and
their families and those with German nationality (Reichs Deutsche) were detained
by Dutch authorities, many of whom had lived in The Netherlands for many years, but
such was the fear, there were few exceptions. Stories circulated about signs on walls and
clandestine light-signals from certain houses in the
darkness bearing secret messages for the German invaders. Alarming though these
dubious stories were, they were also very exciting to a little boy who did not understand their
As a result
of troop deployments, only the paymaster students occupied the
nearby sports ground. They were all young, poorly trained and equipped and
understandably scared. When a German plane flew overhead, the soldiers
simply took cover close to the houses. I took cover under a hedgerow, which did not please my parents! That was the last time I
was allowed to play in our garden for a very long time!
Members of our family from Flushing came to live with us in Middleburg. The burgomaster of
Flushing had advised the inhabitants to leave the town for security reasons. In and around Flushing there were many targets for German bombers,
such as docks, shipping, the airfield and coastal batteries. Most people
followed the advice and left hearth and home with only clothing,
personal ID-cards, ration-cards, food and water. Unfortunately, the burgomaster of Middelburg had issued the same advice to its inhabitants,
because the town was the administrative centre, including command and control of military affairs of the province - another possible target for
Strict blackout conditions
were introduced affecting windows, street lighting, vehicle lights and even
bikes, the control of which was the task of the ARP. From the time the Germans
crossed our borders it
took them a week to
arrive on the island. In that period the local authorities had introduced many
wartime measures for the population to follow.
Friday the 17th
of May dawned like any other with the exception of an air-raid alarm, which my
parents immediately reacted to. The whole family, including our Flushing evacuees, took shelter under the
staircase in the hall, which was the safest place to be during an air raid. We covered our heads with pans, a strainer and similar
kitchen equipment and waited there in fear and trepidation.
During the afternoon, we heard the unfamiliar, terrifying
noise of shells and bombs dropping nearby. The war we had expected for so long
had at last come to our hometown! What happens now? Are we safe? Are the the
Barbarians outside? These were the thoughts foremost in our minds. We took
comfort from each other in the seclusion of our shelter, where we stayed until the activity outside stopped. At
about 18.00 hours we ventured outdoors to the unfamiliar smell of burning buildings and explosives. Not knowing what had happened, or the danger of walking about, we
The next day my father and I
ventured outside to the centre of Middelburg to see what had happened the day
before. We passed by a little park close to a drill-ground, which was being used
for emergency accommodation. We saw tent-like structures made from carpets,
blankets and similar materials. The people using them for shelter were most likely displaced by the bombing. A car drove in
with a near hysterical woman standing on the running board yelling 'fire, they will kill us!' The car was loaded with furniture, personal
possessions and things essential for civilised living. I instinctively knew that something very, very serious had happened and that danger was
everywhere. This was perhaps particularly the case for someone rich enough to own a car.
Rich people had the most to lose and she must have imagined the terrible fate
that awaited her in
the uncertain days ahead. On the other hand, my father looked outwardly calm but
he too must have harboured grave anxieties for the future.
Our future may be uncertain and frightful, but I could trust my Dad!
Although we had only
covered a relatively small local area, the smell of the burning houses was everywhere,
which hung around for the
next month. German Heinkel bombers and SS artillery fire from South-Beveland caused the total destruction of the heart
of our beautiful town, including many medieval and 17th century houses. Eight hundred families had lost their homes!
In the following days a
clearer picture emerged of the events that led up to the German attack on
Middleburg. After the superior German forces crossed our borders on May 10, the poorly equipped Dutch Army faced an irresistible force. With the exception of French and Dutch
troops in Zeeland, the Government ordered the surrender of Dutch forces after the bombing of Rotterdam.
The Zeeland forces continued to resist the Germans until the bombardment of Middelburg. By the evening
of Friday May 17,
the island of Walcheren was in German
- First Impressions
local authority continued to function despite the destruction of our magnificent
town hall. They had decanted into temporary accommodation in the town clerk's
office in 'de Dam' square, where my father attended to some business with an
[Photo; The magnificent town hall in its tranquil setting 75
years after the events described. Courtesy of Google 2019.]
While waiting in the hall,
I saw German soldiers strolling around outside, taking in the beauty of the old
patrician houses. In different circumstances they could have been mistaken for
tourists, but I knew they were 'The Barbarians' who were capable of anything.
What would they do to me? I was terrified and an Alderman, who recognised me and
heard me sobbing, comforted me until my father returned. This was my first
encounter with the occupying German soldiers.
The early days of occupation
witnessed the German forces establishing themselves. Towards the end of May, my father and I cycled in the direction of Vlissingen
by the shortest route over the canal to the harbour - the same route our retreating forces had taken in an
attempt to reach the mainland and thereby to England. The
abandoned military equipment such as sabres, rifles, helmets, horses both dead
and alive, cars etc.
debris of war slowed progress along
the route but I was wide eyed at the prospect of gathering up interesting
pieces of the discarded material. Incomprehensibly to me
at the time, my father forbid it but, of course, he
was right to do so. However, these visual images
started my life long interest in military history,
later sustained by my father's discussions with me about the war.
father's work at the shipyard became uncertain, so he was
drafted as a foreman to clear the town centre of around 45,000 cubic metres of rubble. This was important work since it created
a sense of order out of the chaos and
I felt proud that my dad
had been part of
After that he returned to the shipyard and life, from the perspective of a young boy, took on a feeling of normality.
1940 under German Occupation
New shops were built on the quays to replace those destroyed in the town centre. They were constructed of wood and painted green and white but
the Vroom en Dreesman
(V & D) department store, was mostly built of stone. How times had changed this area of town, where merchant ships from all over the
world once plied their trade.
time in June “Reichskommisar" Seyss-Inquart visited Middelburg to inspect the damage to the town. He was appointed by Hitler as
the highest official for civilian affairs in Holland - a kind of beneficial Governor. He soon became a figure of mild ridicule and
acquired the nickname "six and a quarter" (zes en eenkwart),
which was phonetically close to the pronunciation of his name!
Like Hitler, he was Austrian and
a loyal Nazi. In each of the 11 Dutch provinces he had an assistant called a “Beauftragte”.
Zeeland, the post was occupied by W(illy) Münzer. Seyss-Inquart was later prosecuted at the Nuremburg War Trials.
Some weeks before his visit, “De
Telegraaf,” a national Dutch newspaper, printed a grossly distorted article, which blamed the French and English troops for the
destruction in Middelburg. My parents were so disgusted with German propaganda in such a well respected newspaper that
they immediately cancelled their order.
Westkapelle beachhead. This image shows German coastal guns and
blockhouses. © IWM
The only British troops in our region
was a small demolition unit to destroy
the harbour and cranes of the ship yard. Forty-five years later,
on a visit to Torquay in Devon, England, I was attracted by the sound
of military music. An old soldier explained that they were having a reunion of Army Engineers
and that he had been in Vlissingen
in May, 1940, and had travelled as far afield as the Sloedam! We were so amazed with our meeting that we forgot to exchange addresses - an oversight I
have regretted ever since.
At the conclusion
of his visit to Middelburg, Seyss-Inquart undertook to rebuild the medieval Abbey and other important buildings and
monuments. Whilst reconstruction work was indeed carried out, the hidden agenda was to convince the Dutch population that the Germans respected
Dutch heritage and culture, while the Allies inflicted wanton destruction upon them.
It was Hitler's
intention to offer the Dutch people, also of
Germanic origin, a safe and protected life
- within the Third Reich.
in the period to the end of 1940,
despite this intent, the behaviour and conduct of the occupying forces
was far from perfect, but after higher authorities
intervened the situation improved.
During the inauguration of
on the 29th of May, 1940, in the
Dutch government building “De Ridderzaal" (the Knights’ Hall where the Dutch monarch traditionally opened the parliament each year) he
said, 'I will
respect the rights of the Dutch population.' However, controlling
measures had already been introduced on the 16th of May
1940 with the introduction of German summer-time in the Netherlands.
This was a relief to many who
had expected much more draconian restrictions. By the 1st of June
tea and coffee were rationed to a monthly allowance of 50 grams of tea and 250 grams of coffee per person over 15 years of age. Other rationing followed in close order: 15th
of June, bread and flour; 13th of July, oat, rice, butter and
margarine; 20th of July, vermicelli and on the 14th of September, meat.
It was not long before virtually
everything was rationed and the allowances were reduced again and again.
People adapted by making their own
substitutes and, of course, a thriving black market emerged to service the needs of those who could afford to pay exorbitant prices even
for the essentials of life.
The Dutch Parliament was disbanded on the
21st of June and trade unions were brought under Nazi supervision, which caused my father to resign his membership. On the 9th
of September a curfew was introduced in coastal areas from 22.00 until 04.00 hrs.
This restricted movement across the boundary of our Province to those in possession of a travel permit
by the German authorities.
By the 1st of
October, ID cards (Persoonsbewijs) were issued to
all persons aged 15 and over to be shown on first demand to the Dutch police or
German authorities. These cards also served the purpose of
identifying Jews and workers with skills needed by the Germans. However, it was not long before the Dutch
Resistance made perfect copies with false information for their agents,
allowing them to go about their clandestine work with less
risk of capture. By the 23rd
of November, the process of removing Jewish inhabitants from the labour-force had begun. The benign and simple measures introduced in May, were
now but a fond and distant memory. The German grip on Dutch society was increasing weekly.
A Boy's Outlook
deprivations of war, life became more drab and boring.There
no sweets, no toys, no new clothing or shoes
and no nice presents on birthdays. I had no
of how troubled my parents were over the loss of basic human
rights such as the
freedom of speech and
movement. I was cocooned from their reality and still found
excitement in the new military order.
I started school
brought some structure and organisation into my daily routine. It took
about fifteen minutes to walk to school,
by my mother until she knew it was safe for me to travel alone. For a short time we received a quarter of a litre of milk on an irregular basis. That year we celebrated St. Nicolaas on the 5th of December
(similar to Santa Claus) for the last time
traditional a festive season as was possible under the circumstances.
We had baked fritters and apple turnovers and there
was a Christmas tree with real small candles. In the following years there was nothing
with which to celebrate, as a result of the rationing and
general restrictions. Life was rapidly turning into
a struggle simply to exist.
- The Screw Tightens
1941 was a terrible year. Rations
continued to be reduced, registration of Jewish inhabitants became compulsory and admittance to cinemas and theatres was forbidden. In Amsterdam,
many Jews were rounded up and transported out of the country. There
was little the population could do against the German military
might, so a mass civil
protest took place against the increasingly
punitive measure against the Jewish population. To
impose their will, the Germans executed
18 civilians as an example to others. Each year the
anniversary of this tragic event is remembered.
In an attempt to erase the memory of the
Dutch Royal Family, the use of their names was forbidden. Streets bearing their names were renamed and the use of Royal names for new
born children was outlawed. The Dutch coinage, bearing the portrait of the Queen, was replaced by German equivalents made of zinc and
stamped with Nazi symbols. Notes above 1 guilder were replaced by ones signed by Nazi officials. These measures met the German
objective of removing all Royal images and references and gave the Germans a valuable source of much needed bronze, silver and even
gold. Later, as the supply of metals failed to meet the German
demand, household goods made of brass, nickel, bronze, copper, aluminium
etc were handed over for the German war effort.
Censorship regulations were introduced
to forbid the population listening to radio stations other than those
controlled by the Germans. There were heavy penalties for those who
transgressed, including the dreaded
for the most serious offences. Newspapers only published material
approved by the Germans and publishing any
deaths or damage caused by Allied air
was forbidden. Only meaningless descriptions were
published, such as "by a fatal accident was killed." This
approach was to thwart Allied intelligence gathering in assessing the
Even the duties and responsibilities
Local and Provincial Government were redefined and political
My worst moment occurred on the 16th of
My friend Henk and I were playing in the park behind our
houses. Our parents were friends and both our fathers bred canaries. It was a spring like morning and,
at about 10.15 hrs,
Henk left with his
father to visit his grandparents who lived nearby. I wanted to
go with them
and while Henk's father was happy to take me
my parents had other plans.
Because it was
a nice day,
they took a detour along the
town's ancient defensive walls - a decision that was to cost them
Earlier that morning, from 08.22hrs
onwards, 8 Blenheims of 139 Squadron left RAF Horsham St. Faith near
Norwich in southern England on individual missions to destroy coastal
targets in Holland, Belgium and France. One of them flew over
Walcheren and, despite encountering intense anti aircraft flak, it
dropped 4 HE bombs in the area of the Middleburg gas works. Sadly
3 civilians were killed and 2 seriously injured. Amongst the dead were
my friend Henk and his father Piet Scheijbeler.
M.v.Dijk & W.de Meester.]
I think of them often.
[Photo - the Author with his granddaughter
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On this website
Operation Infatuate - the
Invasion of Walcheren
by Geoff Slee from information provided by Jan H. Wigard, Walcheren, Holland.
Jan felt unable to continue with his
reminiscences through 1942 to late 1944 although that had been his
original intention. His is the only account on this website of life
under the oppressive military rule of the Nazi regime, and we thank
him for that.