~ HMS GLENEARN ~
LANDING SHIP INFANTRY (LARGE) - LSI(L)
[Photos courtesy of Myles Sutherland.]
was a class of WW2 vessels known as Landing Ship
Infantry (Large), LSI (L). The purpose of this class of vessel was to carry
large numbers of fully armed
troops and Landing Craft Assault (LCAs), that would carry them on the last few miles to the landing beaches. The LSI(L)s are often referred to as 'mother
ships' because of their 'brood' of LCAs, 24 in the case of the Glenearn,
all securely fixed to davits ready to be lowered, fully laden, into the water like a
modern lifeboat. Since an LCA typically carried around 35 men and some craft would
return for a second load of troops, the Glenearn could well carry around 1,500
There were 3 invasion forces in
the British/Canadian Eastern Task Force, one each for the Sword (S), Juno (J)
and Gold (G) landing beaches and two in the American Western Task Force for
Omaha (O) and Utah (U). HMS Glenearn and the
both attended Sword beach. The Glenearn
was a converted, 16 knot, cargo liner of about
Having successfully delivered
their first assault troops onto their
designated beaches, the LCAs returned to their mother
ship, or any other troop carrying vessel they were directed to, where they were
either hoisted on board or came alongside to take on their next 30+ troops to
their designated landing beaches. There were other types of landing
craft, described elsewhere, that journeyed across the English Channel, under their own power, to
disembark their "cargos" of men, equipment and supplies, directly onto the beaches.
Telegraphist, George Downing served on HMS Glenearn. His job
was to send and receive Morse code radio signals.
He recalled that a muster of all the troops and the ship's crew was called on June 4th, when we
were told about our mission and the landings. Thereafter, the ship was sealed,
which meant no one, except a post man escorted by a senior officer, could
leave the ship. We were told that the airborne troops were to parachute behind
enemy lines an hour before the beach landings, primarily to disable enemy shore
On June 5th, the day
before the D-Day landings, the sea between the Isle of Wight and the English
Solent, was brim full with hundreds of ships of all types and sizes. HMS Glenearn was the last to
leave dock at 9pm and witnessed the spectacle as she steamed to her allotted position for
the passage to Normandy. The landings were due to commence at 5am the next
day. The above map shows the numbers of men who were transported to the
beaches on D-Day and the position of the beaches visited by the Glenearn
during the following 6 weeks.
continues; "As we approached the Normandy beaches, we saw many Landing
Craft Tank (LCTs) and Landing Craft Tank (Rocket) ( LCT(Rs) firing their salvos
of exploding missiles to soften up the German beach defences before the landings
[Left; the two flotillas of 12 LCAs
each which HMS Glenearn carried. Admiralty's 'Green List' for June 5,
After we disembarked our troops that fateful
morning, we picked up the first of the wounded soldiers and returned them to Southampton
for hospital treatment. We then urgently embarked more troops to reinforce
those already landed. Without a constant supply of men, ammunition, vehicles
and supplies, the advancing invasion force would stall, giving the enemy time
to regroup for a counter attack.
of George Downing aged 19.]
Glenearn could carry 1,500 plus
soldiers and was ideally suited for
ferrying duties between the UK and Normandy. We witnessed death and
destruction on the landing beaches,
far too graphic to describe here. But the
incident occurred on the quayside in a line of American GIs waiting to embark;
one of them took his own life rather than face his worst nightmares in France.
I also recall making a
fast overnight crossing of the English Channel in the company of our sister
ship HMS Glengyle, with the frigate HMS Starling as escort. On another homeward trip,
we met up with
in the process of returning to the beaches to give more
support to the troops,
after having her gun barrels replaced. Her gun turrets
were later placed at the entrance to the Imperial War Museum in London as a
fitting and lasting tribute."
HMS Glenearn's ferrying duties continued for around 6 weeks,
during which time all the main beaches in France were supplied by her.
However, with increasing use of the Mulberry Harbours
and captured French ports, the demand for beach landings diminished
and the Glenearn was recalled to Greenock on the River Clyde near Glasgow.
[ Rear Admiral Arthur G Talbot,
Force 'S' on D-Day.
© IWM (A 21718).]
The crew were given only 4 days leave, which was
insufficient time for a major refit. Since the crew never knew in advance
what the next operation was, there was speculation that the ship was being prepared for
similar duties on the French
in the Mediterranean.
However, when the ship's company returned
to duty, the
Glenearn was freshly painted in Pacific camouflage. They were
destined for the war in the Far East!
The next day,
the crew for
their past efforts and
outlined what was in prospect for them.
A new flotilla had
for a journey to the Far East,
comprising landing ships,
Empire Battleaxe, Broadsword
and Cutlass. With other
vessels including Glenearn, the flotilla was collectively known as Force X
and it was
leaving for New York at 6pm that night!
The journey across the Atlantic was uneventful.
On arrival in New York, additional supplies and communication
equipment were loaded. Prior to departure, around nine hundred American troops
embarked. George recalls, "While this was going
on, we had time for sightseeing, although most of the fleshpots were out of the
reach of the British servicemen’s pay! However, we did take in such sights as
the Stage Door Canteen, Radio City and the Empire State building, which were
The task force set off for the
Pacific Ocean with an
escort of US vessels. However, the flotilla was forced to take
shelter for 24 hours in the Charleston US
Navy base, to avoid an approaching hurricane, before
resuming the passage to Colon and the Panama Canal. From the outset, fresh water was strictly
rationed for drinking purposes only. Frequent stops were
made to replenish supplies, including Bora Bora in the middle of the vast Pacific
Ocean. From there, the flotilla
visited islands recaptured from the Japanese.
Troops were disembarked at Langemak
on the New Guinea coast and at the forward base in
Hollandia, also in New Guinea, where the flotilla joined the US 7th Fleet.
"After inspection of our ships and landing craft, our American
cousins deemed them unfit for the task of landings on the Pacific beaches. We
were not very pleased at being relegated to the task of moving troops and supplies
(see correspondence below from
Frank Mordecai on this subject),
Glenearn was made 'Commodore of Convoys' on a number of operations, including
the on-going battle in the North Phillipines' Lingayen Gulf."
George continues, "Back in our base at Lae in
New Guinea, we
received orders to proceed to Milne Bay and Cairns on
Australia's eastern coastline, where the 7th
Australian Infantry Division
required training for possible amphibious landings on Borneo. From mid October to late December 1945,
mock landings were made on beaches between
Cairns and Townsville, including Trinity Bay, Fitzroy Island, Palm Island and Treger. The docks at Cairns were too shallow for the
Glenearn, so we acted independently from Townsville. Enemy
submarines could not safely navigate their way through the
Great Barrier Reef,
so we sailed with all lights blazing,
often on the upper deck, to enjoy the
enjoyed a well earned rest
in Sydney before returning to Manus
Island in New Guinea. We then sailed with HMAS Nizam and
HMAS Norman to deliver supplies to the British Pacific fleet. En
route, the forward petrol tank exploded and 28 men, including the second in command Chief engineer,
sustained horrific burns. Two seamen were trapped in the lower decks and the
hatches had to be locked in order to save the ship. It took a good forty eight
hours for the fires to be cooled down before the bodies could be recovered and
buried at sea.
The stench of burnt human flesh lingered for many
days. All the casualties required urgent medical attention, so we diverted
to Hollandia in the hope of finding a hospital
ship. It was not to be, so the men were transported by
ambulance over very rough, makeshift roads to an inland field
hospital. Sadly, the
men, who by then had endured so much, succumbed to their injuries and were buried in the Australian forces cemetery in the jungle
Back at Manus,
repairs and adaptations to our ship were identified, so we
steamed for Melbourne,
via Sydney for repairs at Williamstown, a suburb of the city. The work
would prepare the ship for the transportation of men and materials to the fleet
at sea. During this period, VE (Victory in Europe) day had been celebrated
and some older members of the crew, due to be demobbed, were transported to
Brisbane for onward passage home.
[Photo; HMS Glenearn pennant
with photo of Petty Officer, Jack Holland, who served on the ship.]
The war in the
Pacific was also drawing to a close, when we received orders to proceed with haste to Hong Kong, in order to
validate the British influence in the colony. After arriving there, we picked up
Australian prisoners of war (POWs) from the Chinese island of Hainan, using a
group of smaller craft and a hospital ship. They were all in a very bad way.
Since most of them were from Melbourne, we had high hopes of transporting them
back home. However, by this time, HMS Victorious was collecting large
numbers of prisoners and we transferred our consignment to them.
Our next duty took us to
Shanghi, this time to embark British civilian POWs. They were in much better condition than the Australian troops
and we had expectations of transporting them back to the UK but, in Colombo,
Ceylon (Sri Lanka), we transferred them into the charge of another vessel. With unrest in Indonesia,
our destiny saw us carry Indian
military personnel to the country, to quell brewing trouble between the
republicans and the authorities and, on the return trip to Columbo, we repatriated
Dutch refugee POWs.
From there, we steamed to the Royal
Navy base at Trincomalee in Ceylon. There we learned that HMS Glenearn
was to serve as the Senior
Naval Officer's establishment in Kure, Japan and a base for a naval party tasked to rebuild a communication centre. Kure was a former Japanese naval
base,+ which suffered after effects from the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima some twelve miles away. At this point, my demob
papers were up and I sailed back to Hong Kong, demob on HMS Houge and
onwards to Blighty
(affectionate name for England)."
Mordecai takes up the story of what he regarded as a wasted mission.
"I was the wireman attached to the
Royal Marine LCA flotilla, aboard the starboard side of HMS Glenearn. My
90 year old memory cannot recall the flotilla number.
After extensive training and the D-Day landings, HMS Glenearn
and other LSIs were sent to help in the South
Pacific campaign. Despite our background and experience, the 7th
considered us unsatisfactory for assault landings and relegated us to troop
carrying. This, we dutifully carried out for a few months.
Becoming surplus to
their requirements, the personnel of the LCA flotilla were then shipped back to
Blighty on HMS Empire Battleaxe (Photo below). We felt it was such a waste
of time and effort for trained and battle-hardened LCA crews to have no purpose
in the Pacific theatre, although we were pleased to be returning home.
We concluded, in later discussions
at the local branch of the LST and Landing Craft Association, that General MacArthur and his
hierarchy considered the South Pacific to be their own private war and resented
the involvement of other Nations, even the Aussies. However, I have a personal
reason to be thankful for the decision to send us home. My mess deck was
adjacent to the petrol tank on the Glenearn which exploded after our
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to the UK in 1945 on board HMS Empire
I served on HMS GLENEARN from the 30 October
1943 until the beginning of April 1945. She carried 2 Royal Marine flotilla’s
numbered 535 consisting of 12 LCA’S (on davits) and 543 consisting of 12 LCAs
(on davits) and 3 LCM’s carried on deck, 2 on the fore well deck and one on
the after well deck.
I was a member of the 535
flotilla. In the early days Glenearn carried 535 and 536 Flotillas, not too
sure of dates but 535 and 536 flotillas, along with 537, 538 and 539, left
Dartmouth Naval College where we had been doing seamanship courses. The
’Stokers’ then went to Nth Wales for their course and later we were all bought
together at Fort George? NE of Inverness in Scotland as two flotillas. We then
sailed our LCAs through a small section of the Caledonian Canal to Inverness
where we were billeted in the Cameron Barracks until the 30 October 1943. HMS
Glenearn then sailed into the Moray Firth and picked up the two flotillas -
536 took the port side and 535 took the starboard side davits. After a few
days, 536 flotilla was transferred to the Empire Cutlass.
Early in November 1943, 535
Flotilla was put ashore at HMS BRONTOSAURUS in the Clyde estuary. HMS Glenearn then
entered Rosyth Naval Dockyard on the River Forth to have her hoisting hooks
modified as they were found to be unsafe during earlier ‘exercises’ near
Cromarty, while getting ready for D Day. Weather wise, the D Day landings were
comparatively easy as compared to the bad winter of 1943 off the coast of NE
Scotland. After Normandy, HMS Glenearn, carried a ‘Beach Party’ of RN
Commandos and a small helicopter for forward scouting in the Pacific. HMS
Glenearn was quite a happy ship as I recall.
PDFs/'X' FORCE.pdf for a fuller version of
father, Norman James Kingscott who, unfortunately, passed away last new
years eve, served on HMS Glenearn during the war. He never really
told us much about his service but we knew he served on the Glenearn on
D-day and also went to the Pacific. Since his passing, I have been trying to
find out more and came across a photo of him on your site. He is the 3rd
from the left in the back row. It was a real treat for us to find the photo.
[The group photo below.]
After going through some of his things I also
found this Christmas Day menu from 1944 that I thought may be of some
interest to you.
I found your site while looking for
information about HMS
Glenearn, the ship that carried my uncle to freedom in Hong Kong
to Australia as a POW in September 1945.
I was young at the time
of his passing and the family rarely spoke of his time in service, so my
knowledge is limited. I believe he was
on Ambon and later transferred to Hainan from where he was liberated and
then repatriated. On reaching Hong Kong, he transferred to HMS Vindex
to complete his journey home to Australia. Opposite,
is a letter home he wrote onboard the Glenearn, together with a
couple of photos. In the group photo of
the 2nd 12th Field Ambulance, he is third from the left in the 2nd front
row, in the dark pullover.
This is coming to you from
Auckland, New Zealand.
In your section dealing with HMS
Glenearn, George relates that in 1945 the Glenearn steamed to Shanghai to pick
up British civilian POWs, dropping them off in Columbo “into the charge of
another vessel.” I can verify that.
Between the ages of six and eight
and a half I was, with my parents, interned in G Block, Longhua camp, a few
miles south of Shanghai. Just along the corridor was a teenager, Jim Ballard,
who, in later life, became a well-known novelist and author of Empire of
the Sun, loosely based on his experiences there.
In ( I believe) September 1945 we
boarded HMS Glenearn, a ship that was to take us part way back to the UK. We
were accommodated in the rear hold, ventilation being provided by a canvas
tube slung from the rear mast. Accompanying us in case one or other ship hit
a mine was a frigate (possibly the Plym, later blown up in the Monte Bello
Islands A-bomb test). First stop was Hong Kong which only a month or two
earlier had passed from Japanese to British control. I remember going ashore
in one of the ship’s landing barges, finding the business district still
strewn with rubble. From there to Singapore where we were visited by and
photographed with Lady Mountbatten. Finally on to Columbo. The Indian Ocean
however was rough and the largely empty ship was tossed around like a cork.
In fact I recall being told one of the landing barges had been washed away.
As for me, I was seasick from the time we left the shelter of Sumatra to the
time we arrived in Columbo.
From Columbo we were scheduled to
go straight to Southampton. But because I had been so sick, my parents
secured permission to remain in Columbo for a fortnight, giving me time to
recover. The ship on which we left Columbo was the much larger Athlone
Castle, packed with servicemen returning from the East.
From 1947 to 1951 I was again in
Hong Kong. The Glenearn, now in civilian garb, used to come into the harbour
from time to time, clearly visible from the Star Ferry which I used daily to
get to school. Your photos of the ship in its two quite different roles
brought back many memories. But it all seems so long ago.
With kind regards,
I read with interest your article on HMS Glenearn. My 97 year old Dad, Robbie
Clark, remembers the ship as the one that evacuated him from Souda Bay, Crete
just before the German invasion. He says it was the last ship to leave. I
wonder if anyone knows when this evacuation happened. My Dad was taken
prisoner at Tobruk on 21st June 1942 and together we're trying to work out the
timeline of these momentous events in his life.
I have just alighted on your HMS
Glenearn web page. My father, Edward ("Ted") Telling, also came off Crete
on the Glenearn. I remember him saying that he got off on the last ship
to leave. He was in the RA (Service No. 919569). He recorded some comments
for the IWM. I believe the evacuation took place late May 1941.
Coincidentally, one of our
neighbours from many years ago, Derek Walker, was an officer on the
Glenearn at the time of the evacuation.
I was surprised and delighted to find that the page about HMS
Glenearn includes a photograph with my father in it. Most of his war
service is still just an outline of events such as his time on HMS
Glenearn. Your website was able to answer some questions about what he
did and why he was transferred off Glenearn in Townsville to HMS
Empire Battleaxe. The photograph of the group of men from HMS
Glenearn onboard the Empire Battleaxe shows my father, Frank
White, in the centre front. He was a shipwright involved in building landing
boats for D-Day and once that job was completed, he entered the navy as a
Thank you for creating such an informative website.
Dr Hilary J Davies
My wife and I have only just found your
excellent website, when “ surfing “ for anything relating to HMS Glenearn
during WW2. Previous attempts resulted in us missing the site, inexplicably.
The reason for our search is that my wife’s
late father served on this vessel and others ( possibly HMS Empire Battleaxe
), particularly on D-Day and
thereafter. He was Cpl. Bert Townsend, R.M. and he is the one on the right
of the photo taken in New York, as referred to by Mr. Derek Bingham in his
article (immediately below). We knew it was Bert as soon as we saw the
photo, and his wife, who happily is still going strong at nearly 85 years of
age, has now found a print of the same photo amongst a host of family
Bert was born in Plymouth in 1924. He sadly
passed away back in 1999. On about the only occasion that I ever got him to
talk about WW2, he told me that he did his training in several places, most
notably Barmouth, and he reeled off several places he visited with the
Glenearn after D-Day, including New York, the Panama Canal and Bora Bora, as
well as Sydney I believe. However, he would not talk about D-Day itself,
other than to say that he was a Landing Craft Coxswain. Our generation can
barely imagine what it must have been like. After demob, Bert soon became a
Police Officer and retired after the full stint in the Force. He then worked
in Local Government before enjoying retirement.
[Photo; Bert, 5th from the left in back row, in training prior to D-Day.]
We are looking at some diaries that Bert left,
and if anything of interest comes from those we will offer it for addition
to the website. Quite frankly, it has been remiss of us not to have done
this years ago, but better late than never !
Congratulations on a fascinating site.
First of all I would like to congratulate you on your wonderful
website. I am writing to you concerning my father Alexander Bingham CHX
112104. He served on HMS Glenearn and possibly Empire Battleaxe too. We
have a number of items from his time on Glenearn and on leaving the forces
including a concert programme from the ship entitled the guinea pigs, a
Crossing the Line (equator) certificate, his kit bag (he wrote on his bag all
the places he sailed to), his belt, a credit slip for wages etc. My mother
certainly remembers well going to Greenock to wave him goodbye but she recalls
that on that occasion he joined the HMS Battleaxe. My father took part
in the nautical phase of the D Day landings and always spoke of the shear
scale of the event. Sadly my father is no longer with us but I feel, through
your great site, I have found out so much more about his war exploits. All the
best to you.
[Below is a selection of photos of some of the items
mentioned in Derek Bingham's letter. Please contact us if you recognise anyone
in the last photo taken in a New York photograph studio in August 1944.
Alexander Bingham is on the left.]
After going through my deceased mother's war memories, I found
this card and in following it up on the Internet I found your fascinating
website. My mother lived in Townsville on the north east coast of Australia and
helped as much as she could in the war effort. The card was probably an
admittance ticket for a dance while the ship was in port. I felt it belonged
with all the memorabilia on HMS Glenearn (no matter how small it may
seem). My mother was Lindsay Macfarlane (nee Mackenzie). She married in 1945.
Well done for keeping the memory alive. Sue G.
||The ticket gives us an
interesting insight into the normal social activities that continued
throughout the war and the support of local communities for our service men
and women - in this case a dance on board HMS Glenearn while in port.
This account was written George Downing who served on HMS
Glenearn. It was subsequently redrafted for website presentation by Geoff Slee and approved by the author before publication.