OPERATION FLIPPER ~
Commando Raid to Capture Rommel
- 14/18 Nov 1941
The Commando raid to capture Rommel at his Libyan HQ was called Operation Flipper. The small raiding
party achieved total surprise but due to poor intelligence there never was a
chance of killing or capturing the General - he was in Rome at the time. Lt Col Geoffrey Keyes was
posthumously awarded the Commandos first VC for his role in the action.
Rommel had Tobruk under siege and Cyrenaica under occupation. Churchill had placed Auchinleck under increasing
pressure to counter attack and by October 1941 a plan of action code named Crusader was in place.
Plans & Preparations
In advance of the main thrust, Middle East
Commando was given two tasks. L Detachment was to raid landing grounds in the Gazala-Tmini area while No 11 Commando was to target various HQ
buildings in the Cyrene area including Rommel's HQ. In addition telephone and telegraph communications were to be sabotaged. The raids were to
take place on the night of 17/18th November - the eve of the launch of Crusader. Click on maps to enlarge.
A small party left Alexandria on the evening of the 10th of November 1941 in the submarines Torbay and Talisman. On
board the former were Lt. Col.
Geoffrey Keyes, two officers and 22 men and on the latter were Laycock, two officers and 24 men. They arrived off the landing beaches on the
14th with Keyes in command of
the raid on Rommel's HQ with Laycock responsible for the wider Flipper operation.
Waiting on the beach were Captain Jock Haselden and an Arab soldier from G(R) Branch to guide the folbots and dinghies to the beach and to
assist in bringing the vessels ashore. The
remainder of Haselden's men, comprising two British officers, a Free Belgian Captain and an Arab soldier, were laid up inland. All had been
dropped in the area earlier in the day by the Long Range Desert Group. Haselden and his men had some knowledge of the area and would later play
a part in sabotaging communication links.
At 6.30 p.m. Haselden flashed his torch out to sea and by 6.50 p.m. the first of the folbots arrived out of the darkness. However, before all the men
could disembark from the submarines, heavy seas intervened and of Laycock's party only 7 men and Laycock himself made it ashore. There
was now an immediate need to review the plans taking into account the reduced resources and the overriding need to co-ordinate the raids with
Crusader on the night of the 18th. Amended plans were drawn up as follows; an attack on Rommel's house & HQ by Keyes and 18 other ranks
(ORs), the sabotage of telephone and telegraph communications at the cross-road south of Cyrene by Lieutenant Cook and 6 ORs and on the El Fridia
to Slonta road by Haselden and his 5 ORs. Under cover of darkness on the 15th they set off on their 15/20 mile trek inland in heavy rain.
(Photo; Italian radio station at Appollonia, which was an original target
(1 of 3) during the raid on Rommel's HQ. Courtesy of
Western Desert Battlefield Tours.)
Laycock decided to remain at the rendezvous (RV) with the reserve ammunition in the hope that the rest of his men would arrive.
He was the
only person, other than Keyes, who understood the plan in its entirety and he would be needed to lead his men should they succeed in coming ashore.
As Keyes approached his objective at Beda Littoria on the 17th November friendly Arabs indicated that Rommel's HQ was located at Sidi-Rafa. This
was a view also held by Haselden and so Sidi-Rafa became the new target. The plan was for Keyes, Captain Campbell and Sergeant Terry to enter the building. Other ranks were to take up positions to prevent enemy
interference. These deployments were to; disable the electric light plant (3 men), watch the exits from the guard tent and car park (5), prevent
anyone from leaving a nearby hotel (2), guard the road either side of the building (2) and guard whatever entrance Keyes and his men used to gain access to
the building (2).
All parties took up position just before midnight. Having found no entry at the rear of the building Keyes, Campbell and Terry walked up to
the front door and beat upon it. Campbell demanded entry in German. The door was opened eventually and on realising he had been duped the sentry
put up resistance. Unable to overpower him silently Campbell shot him. The cat was out of the bag!
A burst of
fire from Terry's Tommy gun persuaded two Germans, who deemed to investigate the
commotion, to return upstairs. Outside sentries gunned down two others who were
seen running towards the building. Lights were switched on in many rooms. Keyes
and Campbell started a systematic search of the ground floor. The occupants of
the second room decided to resist and a burst of fire hit Keyes as he opened the
door... see photo opposite provided courtesy of
Battlefield Tours. He fell back into
the corridor mortally wounded. Terry emptied two magazines into the room and Campbell finished the job by lobbing in a grenade and
closing the door. They took Keyes outside where he died almost immediately. While attending to him Campbell's lower leg was broken by a stray
bullet. He ordered Terry to regroup the men and to have them dispose of their remaining grenades through any available windows. He then ordered
himself to be abandoned as the men made their way to their operational RV. He realised that to be carried some 18 miles to the beach over
precipitous terrain and 2000 feet of decent would be an intolerable burden on his men and might jeopardise their safe return. Campbell would
later have his leg amputated in an Italian prison camp.
Jack Terry and his seventeen men met up with Laycock and his base party of three at the RV but nothing more was heard of Cook and his group of
six. On the
night of the 18th Torbay made contact with Laycock by Aldis lamp. Once more the seas were too rough to launch the dinghies but the submarine
managed to get food and water ashore. The next day it became clear that the enemy was aware of Laycock's position on the beach. First Arab
Carabinieri, then small groups of Germans and then Italians were seen in the area. Fire was opened on Laycock and his men and he was forced to
abandon his position and move inland. He ordered his men to form small units of no more than three men and to make their escape from the area. Optional
destinations included an alternative beach where Talisman would be waiting, the Slonta area where it was known that the Long Range
Desert Group was operating or wadis to the north of Cyrene where they could lay up until definite news of the progress of Crusader was received.
Later friendly Arabs told Haselden that a map of the landing beach had been found on one of the British prisoners. This accounted for the early
discovery of the well concealed beach party.
Of the entire force Laycock and Terry made it back to British lines after 37 days in the desert
and Bombardier John Brittlebank, DCM, 930882 RA, 3 & 8 Cdo & 1 SBS,
managed to get back to Allied lines alone. His DCM citation runs, "This NCO had
previously taken part in the raid on Rommel's HQ and had succeeded in finding
his way back to his unit after being 40 days in the desert behind enemy lines"
(Cdo Gallantry Awards P65).
The remainder of the force were either
taken prisoner or killed by hostile Arabs.
It later transpired that
Rommel had used the HQ at Beda Littoria as confirmed in the Rommel Diaries
had also used the original building at Sidi-Rafa but only as a logistics HQ. In any event he had been in Rome
at the time of the raid and did not return to North Africa until the 18th.
Jock Haselden and his men completed their demolition tasks and successfully returned to Allied lines courtesy of the Long Range Desert Group. The raid was
largely unsuccessful since few of its objectives were achieved and virtually all the men involved from Middle East Commando were lost in action or taken prisoner.
When Laycock and Terry arrived at 8th Army HQ on December 25 a signal was sent to Oliver Lyttleton the Minister in Cairo stating "Feel it
would interest C-in-C and Minister to know that Laycock arrived today at 9.20 p.m. for his Christmas dinner." The reply was "Please state
why Laycock was one hour 20 minutes late for his Christmas Dinner."
For his part in the raid Lt. Col. Geoffrey Keyes was posthumously awarded the first Commando Victoria Cross.
On Rommel's instructions, Keyes was buried with
full military honours with Rommel's personal chaplain, priest Rudolf Dalmrath,
officiating. Cypress crosses and wreaths were made for the British and German
dead. Photos of the ceremony were sent to Keyes' parents; a chivalrous wartime
act on the part of Rommel. [Photo, left, courtesy of John
Williamson who wrote; the photo was taken on 20th March 1948 whilst I was
serving with the Royal Signals in Benghazi. The wooden crosses were, apparently,
BENGHAZI WAR CEMETERY (Libya) KEYES,
Lieutenant Colonel, Geoffrey Charles Tasker, VC, MC, 71081. Royal Scots Greys
(2nd Dragoons), R.A.C. 18th November 1941. Age 24. Awarded Croix de Guerre.
FRASER, Private T C, The Queens Own Cameron Highlanders, No 11 Commando.
20 - 24 June 1941, age 23. MACQUARRIE Lance Corporal D, 3319006
Gordon Highlanders, No 11 Commando, 31/12/41 aged 24.
L/Cpl MacQuarrie's great nephew, John Pattinson,
sent (Oct 2016) two photos. The first is a
group photo about which little is known other than the rather obvious dessert
background. In the photo, L/Cpl MacQuarrie is identified with a cross. If anyone
recognises any of the others, please contact us. The
second photo is of L/Cpl Mcquarrie's grave when it was marked by a wooden cross.
ENFIDAVILLE WAR CEMETERY (Tunisia) BROWN,
Corporal. Leslie Jock, 5437777. Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry. 15th-18th
January 1943. Age 26. NIXON, Private, Malvern, 3056939. Royal Scots.
15th-18th January 1943. Age 23.
CEMETERY, Acroma (Lybia).
WOOD A J, Sgt 3054128, Royal Scots.
04/12/1941. Age 28. (Photos courtesy of
Western Desert Battlefield Tours).
There are around 300 books listed on our
'Combined Operations Books' page which can be purchased on-line from the
Advanced Book Exchange (ABE) whose search banner checks the shelves of thousands
of book shops world-wide. Type in or copy and paste the title of your choice or
use the 'keyword' box for book suggestions. There's no obligation to buy, no
registration and no passwords. Click
'Books' for more information.
Ex L/Cpl X, QGM
SAS & LRDG
A seminal project
comprising moving stories of every Special Air Service and Long Range Desert
Group casualty in WW2. All proceeds go to charities. Full details
Black Hackle (on this website)
by Graham Lappin - an historical account of No.11 (Scottish) Commando which
includes a section on Operation Flipper.
Get Rommel: The Secret British Mission to Kill Hitler's Greatest General
by Michael Asher, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London 2004, 303pp 029784685X
Rommel in North
Africa - more information on the 'desert fox'.
Geoffrey Keyes, VC of the Rommel Raid
by Elizabeth Keyes. Pub 1956 by George Newnes Ltd,
Commandos and Rangers of World War 2 by James D. Ladd. Pub1978
by MacDonald & Jane's. 0 356 08432 9
Commandos 1940 - 1946 by Charles
Messenger. Pub by William Kimber, London 1985. 0 7183 0553 1
The Watery Maze by Bernard Fergusson published 1961 by Collins.
My father, Dennis Birch, ex
11 Commando, died in 2011. Whilst clearing out his house I found some
interesting material including the attached 1948 letter from the Rt. Hon.
Elizabeth Keyes, sister of Lt Col Geoffrey Keyes. (Cick
here to open). My father often mentioned the raid on Rommel’s HQ and his
involvement but otherwise spoke little of his time in North Africa other than to
say that they were constantly moving backwards and forwards ‘up the desert’.
Also in his belongings I found a copy of the Trobuk Truth from 1942, a
newsletter distributed to the troops and a printed copy of Montgomery’s rallying
speech. He kept these without really telling anyone.
I'm not sure if he replied
to Elizabeth Keyes but I've requested a copy of her book that was published in
1956 to see if my dad gets a mention.
Note: The book, called
Geoffrey Keyes V.C. Of The Rommel Raid,
is available for a few pounds
through the Advanced Book Exchange (ABE). Visit this website's "Books
page" and click on the ABE icon.
may be interested in the picture of my dad, Frank Varney of 11th Commando
(3rd from the left in photo). He was part of the raiding party who tried to
capture Rommel in 1941. I wonder if anyone has information about him or his
war service. Regards, Andrew Varney.
If you have any information or book
recommendations about Operation Flipper please