~ D-DAY LANDING CRAFT OPERATIONS
On Gold, Juno, Sword, Utah & Omaha
of personal testimonies that convey a
sense of the hazards, challenges, death and destruction witnessed by the crews of landing craft on D-Day, June 6, 1944.
[Map courtesy of
Google Map Data 2017.]
Landing directly onto
unimproved beaches defended by the enemy was the only viable option open to the
Allies, because all useable ports and harbours were in
enemy hands. That was true in North Africa, Sicily and Italy but Normandy was
unique in human history because of its vast scale.
Many valuable lessons were learned from the ill-fated
amphibious assault on
of August 1942, which were incorporated into the planning for the Normandy
landings. These included;
1) the need for
reliable intelligence on the strength and disposition of the
defending forces and the topography on and around the
landing beaches. Lt Commander Nigel Clogstoun-Willmott,
RN, who had undertaken beach reconnaissance trials in the
Mediterranean, was recalled to the UK in the summer of 1942
to set up training programmes for the
Combined Operations Pilotage Parties
(COPPs). Beach reconnaissance became an integral part
the planning process for the
invasion of North Africa
in early November 1942 and in all future major landings.
2) consideration of the
supporting role of vessels at sea produced numerous landing
craft adaptations such as:
Landing Craft Gun LCG, described by the BBC on
D-Day as 'mini battleships' with their 4.7 inch guns and
other armaments, operating inshore; Landing
Craft Flack, LCF, to provide anti-aircraft cover
over the landing area;
Tank (Rocket), LCT (R) for the initial bombardment of
the beaches in advance
of troops landing and Landing Craft Assault (Hedgerow), LCA
(HR) that could lob volleys of spigot bombs onto the beach
area to detonate hidden enemy mines.
3) the need for troop commanders
afloat to be aware of the on-going progress of the invading
force was essential for well considered and justifiable
decisions on, for example, the commitment of reserves or a
timely and well organised strategic withdrawal.
4) the need
for landing craft
to be armoured against small arms fire was now considered an
to reduce casualties on the approaches to the landing
At dawn, on the morning of D-Day, the 6th of June 1944, the greatest armada ever assembled stood ready
for action a few miles off the landing beaches of Normandy. Their presence, at
this pivotal point in history, was the culmination of four years of training in
the use of a myriad of landing craft, involving hundreds of thousands of personnel
from the three services.
For many of the craft that summer morning, the journey across the
English Channel had been
long and arduous. Many of the first wave LCT (Landing Craft, Tank) had set out
during the early morning of June 5th, laden with troops and tanks. Their journey
had taken around eighteen hours and for the landing craft officers and crew
these were sleepless hours, as they focussed on maintaining their position in the
convoy and scanned the sky and sea for
For many of the Royal Navy
landing craft crews serving under the Combined Operations Command, D-Day would
be their first action, while seasoned veterans of the many landings in the
Mediterranean during 1943 were better able to prepare themselves for what lay
rough sea conditions caused violent seasickness amongst the troops and gaining the
shore to face the
enemy was mitigated by the thought of ridding themselves of the nausea. The American built,
British manned Mk5 LCT 2226 making for Utah beach broke down and was forced to return
to the UK for repairs. The
men of the US 4th Infantry Division aboard 2226 were in a state of severe distress,
which crew member, George Cooper described, "the craft was awash with vomit."
All landing craft were, by design, flat bottomed
with a square front end for
close inshore work and beach landings. They were more difficult to handle and
more susceptible to the motion of the sea and wind than conventional craft, even in calm
water. In the run-up to D-Day, 48 American built Mk5 LCTs, serving with the Royal
Navy under lend-lease, had been converted to LCT(A) and LCT(HE) - 'Armoured' and
'High Explosive' respectively. The LCT(A)s in particular were very vulnerable in
rough seas, because their centre of gravity had been raised when ramps and
elevated platforms were installed to allow the tanks to fire over the bows, forcing
the defenders to keep their heads down. However, in this configuration they were
more prone to turning over in heavy seas.
Making her way to Gold beach that morning as part of the 109th LCT(A)(HE) Flotilla was LCT
(A) 2039. The craft were carrying Centaur and Sherman tanks of the 1st Royal
Marine Armoured Support Group. They were part of the 'first assault' on King sector of Gold beach, to the west of La Riviere,
in support of the 69th Infantry
Brigade of the British 50th Division. Sadly 2039 was swamped and turned turtle
in the early morning hours when some 20 miles off the
beaches. Two crew members, Able Seamen Illingworth and Donnelly were
[Photo; Troops from 50th Division coming ashore from LSI(L)s,
Gold area, 6 June 1944. © IWM.]
Initially the survivors were picked up by a control craft
and later transferred to the
Canadian troopship Prince Henry en route to England, having disembarked
her cargo on Juno beach. 2039 remained afloat and was sunk by the Royal Navy, as
the upturned hull was a hazard to shipping.
As the British 50th Division closed on Gold beach,
the 231st Infantry Brigade and their support
units were lowered from the
troopships Empire Arquebus, Empire Crossbow, Empire Spearhead and Glenroy, their destination the Jig Red/Jig Green sectors at Le Hamel.
On their left (to the eastward), on to the King Red/King Green sectors at Ver sur Mer, the men of
the 69th infantry Brigade were lowered from the
troopships Empire Halberd, Empire Mace, Empire Lance and Empire Rapier.
In support on Gold beach were the men and craft of 'D' LCT Squadron.
Numerous craft from its five flotillas were hit and in difficulty, including the loss of Mk4 LCT's 809 and 886 of the 28th Flotilla. LCT 810 lost Able Seaman John Tilley.
Sub Lieutenant Victor Bellars
was in command of LCT 896. He recalls;
"With a spigot LCA(HR) in tow, a landing craft equipped with up to 24 mortars,
we approached our designated landing area – Gold Beach, King, Red Sector. It was
a wet and windy night and the LCA crew had a most uncomfortable time. About a
thousand yards off the beach, the LCA slipped the tow and proceeded independently,
at some stage firing her spigots on to the beach near the German beach defences.
This allowed me to more safely beach in that area.
[Photo; Sub Lt Victor Bellars, Commander of LCT 896.]
H-Hour was 0723 but we
arrived 2 minutes early and received some spasmodic friendly fire. After hitting
the beach, we commenced the disembarkation of our petard
tanks. Our landing point was nearly opposite a pillbox, which we thought
contained an 88mm anti-tank gun. Our suspicions were confirmed when the first
tank off our LCT received a direct hit to its turret, totally disabling it. The 2nd tank didn’t fare any better but either
the 3rd or 4th tank* used its petard to deal with the
pillbox. At the same time a Hunt Class Destroyer, believed to be the Pychley,
fired 4 inch shells over my head at the pillbox. *(The Churchill AVRE with
a 290mm spigot mortar known as the Petard. This fired an 18 kg round over a
range of about 75m).
usually went disastrously wrong. On D-Day-1,
we hitched a 20 foot canvas boat loaded with army stores to what would be the
last tank to disembark but it pulled the bow off the boat as it landed! With no
boat to gain the shore, the boat’s army personnel requested permission to go
ashore on foot. This was refused, because the incoming tide was gradually pushing
896 up the beach and they could easily have been crushed.
During our time on the beach, my gunners engaged any suitable targets.
Once our cargo was successfully disembarked I started to un-beach, when a signal
requesting assistance was received from Peter Conolly’s LCT 899, which was
firmly stuck on the beach nearby. We manoeuvred 896 short round (180
degrees) and drifted down so that the two craft were positioned stern to stern.
A heaving line was thrown and the tow passed over to 896, which was my 2½ inch kedge
anchor wire. For many months, I only used engines astern on full power to
un-beach rather than use the slow process of winching the craft off the beach
as it pulled against the anchor dropped on the approach.
I used about half a cable of my wire secured to my after-winch and eased
the power on until the wire was taut, then cleared the quarter deck and put on
full ahead. The second wave of landing craft was fast approaching and I didn’t
want them caught up in the tow. Fortunately LCT 899 came off the beach like a
cork out of a bottle. I kept going but eased the speed down to half ahead,
shortened the tow to about 10 fathoms and proceeded out to sea.
Two or three miles off Courseulles,
I anchored and brought 899 alongside. Some of their crew were transferred and some of both crews tried to effect
temporary repairs, since 899 was taking in water. I hoped that someone would find
us but I think we had drifted on the tide towards Le Havre, where the main
German coastal defences still posed a threat. We decided to wait until dark
before attempting to tow 899 home. After many hours steaming and encountering a
German warship, we reached the relative safety of Southampton's waters."
At Courseulles sur Mer, on the Mike Red/Nan Green sectors of Juno beach, the men and craft of 'K' LCT
Squadron were present in support of the 7th Infantry Brigade of the 3rd Canadian
Division. Also present was LCT 2047 of the 102nd Flotilla. As she made her dash for the beach, her
port gunner, Able Seaman George Pardoe, manning the 20mm Oerlikon gun, noticed numerous LCAs (Landing Craft, Assault) running in alongside. He
then turned his attention to the beach ahead. On beaching, Pardoe
turned round expecting to see the approaching craft and, to his horror, he could
see only debris and floating bodies.
[Photo; Bodies and beached landing craft in front of the sea wall
on Nan Red beach, Juno area, near St Aubin-sur-Mer, 6 June 1944. LCT 518 is on
the right. LCA 522 on the left. © IWM.]
LCT 2243 was also present
with the 102nd Flotilla. At one point, she struck a mine and was lifted out of
the water by the bows but continued her run. During the approach, Wireman
(Electrician) David Johnson heard shouting and looked over the side to see a
soldier struggling in the sea. Attempts to reach the stricken man as 2243 passed
by failed and so did Johnson’s pleas to his commanding officer, Sub Lieutenant
Eric Wilkinson, to slow down in order to effect a rescue. However, the order of
the day for all commanding officers was
stark and simple... make for the beach, whatever the cost, do not stop, do not
pick up survivors.
A total of nine troopships were assigned to the first assault on Courseulles with the Canadian 7th Infantry
Brigade. One of them was HMS Invicta under the command of Acting Lieutenant Commander J R Law. LCAs of 510 Flotilla were lowered and
amongst the men of 510 was Seaman Ken Porter. He records that, as his LCA
approached the beach, he saw sailors and soldiers struggling in the water.
He wanted to stop and help but their orders that day were clear. "We had to
leave them, couldn’t stop, not allowed to stop, those poor lads, shortly after,
our craft hit the beach and the Canadians went off, I can still see them now,
those poor Canadians, dear God those poor Canadians."
East of Courseulles lay Bernieres sur Mer and St Aubin sur Mer,
where their beaches bearing the code names Nan White and Nan Red, were located. These sectors were assaulted by the men of the 8th Infantry Brigade of the 3rd Canadian
Division. In support were the men and craft of ‘N’ LCT Squadron, comprising three flotillas of LCT with the 11th
Flotilla carrying the Sherman Duplex Drive ‘swimming tanks’ of the Canadian Fort Garry Horse. Mk3 LCT 317 lost Ordinary Seaman Sidney Bartley
and Stoker 1st Class Dennis Purnell.
Also in support was the Mk5 LCT(A)(HE)s of the 103rd
Flotilla of J2 Support Squadron transporting the Royal Marine Armoured
Support Group. Of the 103rd Flotilla, LCT(A) 2283 was totally
disabled as she made her dash for the beach after striking a mine or
being hit. She was left dead in the water and the crew were ordered to abandon ship. They spent the better part of D-Day in a ditch on the beach at St Aubin
but later became part of a beach clearing party. Amongst them was Seaman Howard
England, who spent two days
checking over wrecked and abandoned landing craft in the vicinity of Bernieres sur Mer and St Aubin. The LCT(HE)
2285 of the 103rd was also hit on D-Day and lost crew member Ordinary Seaman
Percy ‘Ginger’ Rogers. On D+1 he was buried at sea by his shipmates.
Further east again was the beach
bearing the code name Sword. Its landing zones, named Queen Red and Queen White,
were at La Breche and Lion sur Mer respectively, the former being the most easterly. The first assault wave comprised the men of the 8th
Infantry Brigade of the 3rd British Division. With them went ‘E’ LCT Squadron, comprising four flotillas of LCT with 261 LCI(L)
(Landing Craft Infantry (Large) Flotilla. The 8th Brigade suffered heavy losses during the initial assault.
Several craft of the 45th Flotilla, delivering Royal Engineers, were
hit and in difficulty. Close behind them, some ten minutes late on H-Hour, was the Mk5 LCT of the 100th LCT(A)(HE) Flotilla, delivering the 5th Independent Battery of the Royal
Marine Armoured Support Group.
For two craft of the 100th
Flotilla, the landing was a disaster. The LCT(A)s 2052 and 2191
beached on the easternmost flank of
Queen Red sector, 2191 being at the extreme with 2052 to her starboard (right). Having discharged their respective Centaur and Sherman tanks, a mobile German 88mm
approached from the immediate portside (left) of 2191.
A crew member shouted a warning and commanding
officer, Sub Lieutenant Julian Roney, gave the order for the gun crews to open fire. However, against an 88mm, the men aboard 2191 stood little
[Photo; The American built, British manned, MK5 LCT 2012 in the Far East. On
the morning of June 6th, 1944, the then LCT(A) 2012, was a unit of the 100th
Flotilla. LCT(A) 2191 was of the same design and specification.]
The first shell to hit 2191 exploded to the immediate portside of the bow door. The blast killed Sub Lieutenant
Sidney Green (Photo) and Wireman (electrician) Edward Joseph Trendell, both of whom had been manning the portside winch (the mechanism for lowering and
raising the door or ramp). On the starboard winch were Leading Stoker Victor Orme
and Acting Able Seaman Robert "Geordie" Bryson. Both survived the initial blast
without serious injury.
impact from the shell caused 2191 to turn to starboard, placing her broadside on
to the beach and, as tidal currents continued to turn the craft, her stern
became exposed to the beach and her tank deck, with ramp still in the down
position, became exposed to the open sea.
Gunner Roy Brown was manning the 20mm
starboard Oerlikon on 2191's quarter deck. He recalls that the craft soon
became engulfed by smoke obscuring his view of the beach and German targets sited there,
while the mobile German 88mm to portside (left), that was wreaking such
havoc aboard 2191, was taken out of his line of fire as the craft rotated.
Brown recalls a seaman named Heath, known by his shipmates as 'Darkie' owing
to his dark, weathered complexion, was manning
the port gun.
LCT(A) 2191's Coxswain, the man steering the craft onto the
beach, was a seaman named Lemon, affectionately known by his shipmates as
'Squash'. Brown recalls that he came from the London area. He was in fact
Francis Henry (known as Mark) Lemon, service number P/JX 330464. Shrapnel from
the first blast cut across the right side of his throat and right shoulder.
Although badly wounded, he managed to
reach the beach, where he was shot in the right thigh and the left ankle.
Despite all this trauma he survived the war, returned to accountancy, married
twice and had three children, one of whom, Stephen Lemon, provided this
information and advised that his father died in May 2014 in his 91st year. Not
surprisingly, his father didn't talk
much about his war service.
2191's bows and tank deck engulfed by smoke, Brown soon found his
position untenable. He left his gun station and made for the wheelhouse
but, soon after reaching it, a shell burst through and ricocheted around
the interior, finally exploding on the deck of the wheelhouse at Browns
feet. The upwards blast wounded Brown in the legs and back. He was stretchered off the craft,
transferred to a field hospital and, on Friday, June 9th, 1944, he arrived
back in England.
[Photo left; Roy Brown
clutching a German helmet as a souvenir of his time in Normandy and
Stationed on the bridge were 2191's Commanding Officer,
Sub Lieutenant Julian Roney, Observation Officer, Richard
Thornber(1) and 19 year old Signalman Peter Hutchins. The second shell was as devastating as the first. Roney and Thornber, as far as can be certain, died where they stood,
leaving Signalman Hutchins alone. He tried to report to the wheelhouse but the explosion had destroyed the voice-pipe.
climbed over the starboard side of the bridge, lowered himself to the gun deck
by way of the gun supports and gained entry to the wheelhouse. Through the forward slits he saw Orme and Bryson running towards him along the tank deck.
Just as they entered the
wheelhouse, 2191 was hit for the third time. Hutchins staggered but remained upright. He saw that his right ankle had been smashed and his foot was attached to his leg by
a tendon. Part of his uniform and overalls had been ripped away and his right boot and sock were missing. Amazingly Hutchins remained
standing but both Orme and Bryson lay wounded on the deck.
[Photo left; Signalman Hutchins and right,
Hutchins' immediate thought
was to leave 2191 to seek help for his stricken shipmates but he heard
voices from below and struggled over to a small open trap door in the floor of the wheelhouse.
He lowered himself down a steel ladder and lay face down on the mess deck.
Another shell struck and for a period he
lapsed into unconsciousness. On coming round, he heard cries of help and saw the mess deck was full of smoke,
the craft well alight and
munitions exploding. He retraced his steps to the wheelhouse where Orme and Bryson were in
great distress. Because of his injuries, Hutchins was unable to offer assistance to the men but, after a short rest, he
set off to summon help.
With great difficulty he crawled, hopped and shuffled his way to the still lowered bow door,
where he inflated his
lifebelt and lowered himself into the sea.
The vessel was ablaze, munitions were exploding and
2191was still drifting eastwards some distance off the beach. Once in the water
and aided by the buoyancy of his lifebelt, he swan to the beach and lay face
down, exhausted and severely weakened through exertion, shock and loss of blood.
He had no sense of how the landings had gone but instinctively crawled to a
nearby sand-dune, always moving to the west. He rested many times and lapsed into periods of unconsciousness.
beach appeared to be deserted and he grew increasingly concerned about his own condition and
that of his shipmates. Two
soldiers came into view and, without knowing their nationality, he called for help.
Thankfully, they were survivors from a lost British
amphibious tank. He quickly briefed them on the plight of his two comrades still aboard 2191.
While one of the soldiers left to find a stretcher, the other
stayed with Hutchins. At moments of crisis the passage of time becomes distorted but he
'stretchered' off to a first aid post on an adjacent beach to the west. Morphine was administered
to relieve his pain and the following day at a nearby field hospital, his right leg was amputated below the knee.
Hutchins had made valiant efforts to effect a rescue for his shipmates. In some desperation
to ensure his shipmates would be rescued, he enlisted the help of an
officer of senior rank, who undertook to send in a stretcher party as soon as possible. Shortly after, at 20.30 hours, a full 13 hours after
2191 had first beached, Hutchins saw vast numbers of parachutists dropping some distance inland. Unbeknown to him at the time, the trials and
tribulations of Bryson and Orme aboard the vessel were long since over, but with very different outcomes.
[Photo; Peter Hutchins on a Channel ferry in June 2004. This was his first trip
to Normandy in 60 years... a long way from his New Zealand home. Photo courtesy
of Andy Bystram.]
With the departure of Hutchins, Orme and Bryson were the last of the crew still alive and aboard
2191. Victor Orme was seriously injured and Robert Bryson most likely mortally wounded. Orme
lapsed into periods of unconsciousness and remained on board despite appeals
from Bryson for him to save himself but, when they felt heat coming through the wheelhouse deck
from the fire below, both men realised that Orme would have to leave to save himself... in fact Bryson insisted that he should go. What final words
passed between the men as Orme prepared to leave can scarcely be imagined. Orme was recovered from
the sea by soldiers, who were amazed at his escape from the then blazing wreck of 2191.
[Photo right; Stoker Victor Orme.]
Stoker Victor Orme, a one time member of the crew of HMS AJAX,
never forgot the tragic events of D-Day that left both physical and mental scars. Down the years,
as he watched the Remembrance Day Services at the Cenotaph, his thoughts
often turned to
Robert Bryson, when he could be heard to say, "Poor old Geordie, poor old
Geordie." Peter Hutchins too carried the
physical scars of D-Day for the rest of his life. A native of Leicester,
England, he emigrated to New Zealand after the war.
Little is known about the movements of Motor Mechanic, William
"Ross" Moore during the action. He was seen to jump into the sea off 2191's stern but, while swimming clear, he was killed by a shell
that exploded close by. Moore had a sense of foreboding about his fate on
D-Day, which had its foundation in the pennant number of his LCT adding up to
13. He even cautioned Electrical Artificer, Harry Ashurst against travelling on
2191 if given a choice. During his
schooldays in Brighton on England’s south coast, Moore proved himself to be a
good sportsman and later took up amateur boxing, making quite a name for himself.
[Photos above; Mechanic William
in uniform, courtesy of veteran
Douglas Winter. See 'Acknowledgements'
below for more information. Right, ready to box.]
was witness to the destruction of 2052 and 2191 on D-Day. The craft he
was on was crewed by Royal Marines and, as they
carried him towards Sword beach, he could see the two Mk5 LCTs on the beach. He
knew they were part of his flotilla and expected to go ashore close to
but, given the activity and congestion in the area, his craft was ordered away and beached further to the west.
Later he made his way back to 2052 and 2191 but by then it was over.
[Photos left above; Harry Ashurst on a Channel ferry in June 2004
(courtesy of Andy Bystram) and with a
limited edition print that
depicts the demise of the two LCTs.
Photo right of LCT (A) 2052 courtesy of Tony Chapman.]
destroyed 2191, the German 88mm turned on 2052 to her starboard. As she attained the
beach, she too was hit and Sub
Lieutenant Lawrence Francis, who earlier felt 2052 was in a vulnerable position
on the exposed flank, fell, seriously wounded. His wounds ended his service in the Royal Navy. As
he lay wounded, a
shell passed through the wheelhouse, killing Coxswain Norman Hannah and
seriously wounding Able Seaman, Albert Smith and Telegraphist, John Royce.
All three spent a considerable time in hospital recovering.
[Photos above; left Coxswain Norman Hannah and right,
Telegraphist John Royce.]
Julian Roney, Richard Thornber, Sidney Green, Edward Trendell, Robert ‘Geordie’ Bryson, William ‘Ross’ Moore and Norman
Hannah, all lost from LCT(A)s 2052 and 2191, are at rest in
the Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery at Hermanville, France. (
LCT(A) 2433 was also present with the 100th
Flotilla and had a narrow escape from friendly fire. On her approach to
the beach, a rocket firing LCT(R ), stationed at the rear, released her
salvo. One of its explosive rockets fell short and hit 2433’s bow door,
rendering it useless. After a struggle, the tanks successfully disembarked
2433 and unbeached with its downed ramp dragging in the sea.
[Photo; to the right 2433, centre background, possibly
LCT(A) 2334 and left is LCT(A) 2432.]
Denis Garrod of the Mk 4 LCT 980 of the 41st Flotilla recalls; "I was the Wireman, 'Wires,' on D-Day. Our skipper was
Lt. Peter Gurnsey from Christchurch, New Zealand. Lt Gurnsey married a local
Scottish girl, Margaret Fowler from Catrine, who was a WREN serving in Combined
Ops at Troon. In December 1945, Peter returned to New Zealand with his
family. He was a very fine man, who died several years ago and was buried at sea.
At the wheel of LCT 980 was 20 year old Coxswain Bill Brentnall.
On the way in to Sword beach it was impossible to get into our sector
without striking a beach obstacle, of which there were two rows (see
photo opposite). The tide carried us over the first row but this was not
possible with the second row. Our skipper selected an obstacle and
intentionally hit it dead centre on our heavy steel landing ramp door.
As expected, the obstacle was mined and it blew a sizable hole in the
middle of the door. However, the hole was in such a position that the
disembarking vehicles were able to straddle it on their way onto the
beaches. It was my job to drop the kedge anchor and then to tear forward
to the port side winch locker, where a two man winch was provided for
the door. There was a similar winch on the starboard side.
The troops were disembarked under the supervision of Sub Lieutenant Tait
and we proceeded to raise the door past the horizontal position. Tait took
the left handle from me and I quickly returned to the stern capstan to haul in the kedge anchor. As Tait
and AB Cyril 'Chesh'
Cheshire were manning the winch on the port side, an explosion occurred off the
starboard bow and a large piece of shrapnel flew in, striking Tait in the front
of the head, killing him instantly. Chesh told me afterwards that I missed
that one by a few seconds. We struck a beach mine as we came off in reverse
and that killed our rudders. Despite this setback, the skipper got us out to
sea a couple of miles, where Coxswain Brentnall stitched Sub Lt Tait's body into a hammock,
along with a heavy tank chock and he was committed to the deep."
courtesy of Denis Garrod; Crew members back row l-r "Sparks" & Denis Garrod,
front row Chess, Harry, Mac and Jake.]
[As a result of Denis Garrod's contact with
this website, forwarded to Tony Chapman of the LST and Landing Craft
Association, he and Bill Brentnall were reunited by telephone after 60
A newspaper article of the day reported on the experience of LCT 980.....
LONDON June 12th 1944. TANK FERRY. BEACH
LANDINGS. LIVELY TASK – DOMINION OFFICERS WORKING UNDER FIRE
"With one or two exceptions, it was the worst weather I have
experienced at sea in a tank landing-craft," said Sub-Lieutenant A P. Gurnsey
of Christchurch, commenting on the Channel crossing to France on D day. He was
one of very many New Zealand officers in landing craft of all types.
[Photo; New Zealander, Lt A P Gurnsey.]
"My craft rolled like a barrel all the way," he said. "Our job
was to get the tanks ashore at the extreme left flank of the British front and
we ran into absolute hell. Our zero hour was 8.10 am and, by the time we
arrived, the Jerries had woken up and were ready to give us a warm reception.
They sniped and used mortars, both very unpleasant. In addition, there were
beach obstacles and mines fixed on tripods.
There were 12
landing-craft in our flotilla. It was a great sight to see them, line abreast,
going full speed for the beach. We avoided those obstacles we could but it
was a case of hit or miss.
One of the
mines blew a hole four foot wide in my ramp door but we got all our tanks
ashore. There were a lot of mortar bombs bursting everywhere. One, which
exploded on the beach, covered me with mud and water. It covered my craft too,
which was most annoying, seeing it had recently been given a nice new coat of
paint. In addition to mortar bombs, shells also were coming at us and my
starboard bow was a mass of holes about as big as your fist, caused by shell
splinters. Unfortunately my No.1 was killed.
all the tanks were ashore, I rang for emergency full astern for a quick
getaway, but no sooner were we afloat than a mortar bomb landed astern.
The explosion was so violent that it stopped both motors, which had to
be started up again. Then the coxswain reported that the wheel was
jammed amidships, which meant that we had no rudders and we were only
able to turn round by using the engines. It meant that we were sitting
under fire for about ten minutes longer than we should have been.
Fortunately everything went all right and we reached England under our
Two No 1’s in other LCTs, who
lowered the ramp doors on beaching, were Sub-Lieutenant M R M Glengarry of Wairoa
and A M W Bain of Gisborne. Sub-Lieutenant Bain’s craft took in some water
after hitting a mine but they carried on and successfully disembarked all their tanks.
Sub-Lieutenant Glengarry’s craft suffered four direct hits from mortar bombs,
which disabled all but one of the tanks she carried but, nonetheless, she made it ashore.
Sub-Lieutenant Glengarry was temporarily knocked out by concussion. "We felt
awful mugs bringing our tanks back when everyone else got theirs ashore,"
Other New Zealanders in
landing-craft included Lieutenants I Lipanovic of North Auckland; D Lewis and K Todd of Auckland; T Bourke,
Lower Hutt; O B Reeve, Wellington; A Good, Taranaki; H Buchanan and F
Barnes, Invercargill. Sub-lieutenants were W Day, Nelson; D Hammond, Hawkes
Bay; W Coutts, Napier; K Bowe, Wellington; F Bishop, Christchurch; also E Chote,
E Krull, N Sutton, I Monaghan, E Richards and D Dodson.
The troopships assigned to Sword were HMS Glenearn, Empire Battleaxe,
Empire Broadsword and
Empire Cutlass. With them was the SS Maid of Orleans, carrying the LCA’s of 514 Assault Flotilla, delivering Commandos. Seaman Ray Maddison
of 514 recalled that immediately the Commandos had gone
ashore his LCA returned to seaward carrying a mortally wounded soldier of the 2nd Battalion The East Yorkshire Regiment,
when an explosion shook the beach and amongst the debris that passed over Maddison’s
head was a crucifix on a chain, perfectly intact. The owner of the crucifix
will never be known but Ray Maddison treasured it for the rest of his life.
[Photo; Peter Hutchins
and Harry Ashurst together on a Channel ferry in June 2004. Photo
courtesy of Andy Bystram.]
George Downing, on board HMS Glenearn, recalls;
"After disembarking our troops on the morning of D-Day, we
picked up some of the first wounded and returned to Blighty, where we urgently
embarked more troops to reinforce those already landed. Without a constant
supply of men, ammunition, vehicles and supplies, the advancing invasion force
would stall, giving the enemy time to regroup for a counter attack. Glenearn had
the capacity to
carry over1500 soldiers, making her ideally suited for her ferrying duties. We witnessed many consequences of war too
graphic to describe here but one of the most poignant was the suicide of an
American GI, who could not face the trials ahead and took his own life on the
quayside, while waiting to embark.
I also recall
Glenearn making a fast overnight
crossing accompanied by her sister ship, HMS Glengyle, with the frigate HMS Starling
in support. On an unrelated homeward trip, we met HMS Warspite returning to the beaches
after having her gun barrels replaced. Her gun turrets were later mounted at the
entrance to the Imperial War Museum in London as a fitting and lasting tribute.
Our ferrying duties
over, we were recalled to Greenock, where a surprise awaited us. We were
destined to go to the Far East."
Utah Beach (23,000 Troops)
A full hour before the British and Canadian landings on GOLD, SWORD and JUNO beaches, the men of the US 4th Infantry Division began
landing on the Uncle Red/Tare Green sectors of Utah beach. Transporting them
were the men of the US Navy and the Royal Navy’s ‘O’
and ‘G’ LCT Squadrons spread across the two landing zones. Also present that
D-Day morning, delivering the initial wave of the 1st Battalion
8th Infantry of the US 4th Division, was the Royal Navy’s Empire Gauntlet lowering her LCA’s of 552 Flotilla.
East of Utah beach was the formidable cliff face of Pointe du Hoc, atop which, intelligence sources believed, were heavy
In the D-Day
plan, Pointe du hoc was within the Omaha area but its heavy guns
could range over incoming craft and troops making for
both Omaha and Utah beaches. It was essential to silence these guns. The task was assigned
to the men of the US 2nd Ranger Battalion under the command of Colonel James Rudder.
Royal Marine, John Lambourne was present serving with the LCS(M) (Landing Craft Support (Medium) 102 of 901 Flotilla. He and his crew were
assigned to the troopship Prince Leopold, which carried the LCAs of the Royal Navy’s 504 Flotilla. LCS(M) 102 was
also present in support as LCAs
carrying the Rangers made their way to the beach. Lambourne watched in awe as the Rangers attained the beach and began scaling the cliff by way
of grappling hooks fired from their LCAs. The memory of the bravery he witnessed remained
forever with him.
Many tragedies were played
out on Omaha beach, which was assigned to the men of the US 1st and 29th
Infantry Divisions. The initial wave of Company A of the 116th
Infantry Regiment, landing on Dog Green sector, was decimated. The greater part
of 200 men perished on the beach or in the water. Company A were carried in by LCAs of the Royal Navy’s 551 Flotilla off
the troopship Empire Javelin. Seaman William ‘Bill’ Wain on one of the LCA's carrying them in, to the best of his knowledge and belief
remembers all the
men he landed were lost.
[Photo; Landing craft carrying the first US assault waves head
towards the beach in Dog sector, Omaha area, 6 June, 1944.© IWM (EA 25648).]
What befell the assault troops on Omaha beach has been well documented, not for nothing is it remembered as ‘Bloody Omaha’. Later in the
morning, the Royal Navy’s LCT 1000 of ‘Q’ LCT Squadron approached the beach but congestion
delayed her beaching. On
her bridge were her commanding officer, Skipper Albert Wiseman and Signalman Arthur Tarr. Wiseman scanned Omaha beach with binoculars.
Countless bodies were strewn across the beach and in the water, while wrecked craft littered the water's edge. Wiseman
passed his binoculars to Tarr, who soon
For many months, if not
years, before D-Day, the men of the land and sea forces trained together as they
honed their skills in the use of landing craft with support from their air force
colleagues. On the morning of June 6th,
1944, they bravely fought and thousands died together in Normandy, where they remain,…
Photographs shown here are some collected from wrecked and abandoned landing craft by Howard
England on D-Day, serving with the LCT(A) 2283 of the 103rd Flotilla.
Nothing is known of the men depicted here. I have no way of knowing if they were
even present on the day but I sense they were. I also hope they
Overlord - the D-Day Landings for background information to the landings and a general
perspective of events on the day.
One Mystery Solved thanks to Robert Dodds,
a motor mechanic on LCT 2286 contacted us in August 2009. He wrote; "The photograph of two people
immediately above "Further Reading" shows Edward Jevet (left) and Ted Ballard
(right). They both survived the war. They were stokers on LCT 2286, which went
into Juno beach. Thanks for the web site. I found it very interesting. Regards,
There are around 300 books listed on
our 'Combined Operations Books' page. They, or any
other books you know about, can be purchased on-line from the
Advanced Book Exchange (ABE). Their search banner link, on our 'Books' page, checks the shelves of
thousands of book shops world-wide. Just type in, or copy and paste the
title of your choice, or use the 'keyword' box for book suggestions.
There's no obligation to buy, no registration and no passwords.
Being in All Respects Ready for Sea. Written by the skipper
of a Mark 4 LCT, Hubert G Male. James Publishing, London, 1992, 184 pages, 1 85756 030 2
account of life on WW2 Landing Craft
presents some brief glimpses of specific events seen from the perspective of
those manning the various landing craft on D-Day. It was transcribed from notes
received from veterans and their families by Tony Chapman, Archivist/Historian for the LST and
Landing Craft Association and further edited by Geoff Slee for presentation on
As acknowledged above, the photo of Bill Moore in uniform was
supplied by veteran Douglas Winter, who grew up and attended school with Bill in
Newhaven, Sussex, England. Douglas knew his great pal Bill had been killed on
D-Day but not the manner of his loss until reading this web page. On D-Day,
Douglas arrived off Juno beach serving in HMLST(2) 413 of Temporary Acting
Lieutenant Commander R J W Crowdy RNVR. LST 413 was part of the 2nd LST
Flotilla of Assault Group J3.
1. Sub Lt Richard
Thornber RNVR HMLCT(A) 2191. Richard Thornber, 26,
came from Darwen in Lancashire. A well-built, popular man he swam competitively
and played full back for Darwen Football Club. In 1939, he joined the Liverpool
Police force and in 1940 was awarded a Humane Society silver medal for stopping
a runaway horse and cart. In October 1941, he joined the RAF and became a pilot
until damage to his eyesight led him to join the RNVR being assigned to Combined
Richard died in the knowledge that his wife was expecting
their first child, who grew up ignorant of her father’s precise fate until 2005
when, as a result of finding this website, she spoke to Signalman, Peter
Hutchins of HMLCT(A) 2191 and to flotilla Electrical Artificer Harry